A taxonomic revision of Campylocentrum (Orchidaceae) in Costa Rica is presented. The taxonomic history of the genus and its phylogenetic position are discussed. Characters of vegetative and floral morphology are treated, and their taxonomic significance is discussed. The genus is treated as comprising nine species in the country, and a key to species is provided. Each taxon is described on the basis of Costa Rican material, illustrated in a composite plate, and its distribution within the country is assessed. Distribution maps for all the taxa are given. Overall distribution, derivation of name, notes on species ecology, and diagnostic features are presented for each taxon. The names C. parvulum Schltr. and C. multiflorum Schltr. are neotypified. A new species from Costa Rica, C. generalense, is described and illustrated.
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