Carapa comprises trees confined to tropical forests in Africa and America. Previous revisions of the genus based primarily on herbarium specimens recognized few variable species, but also stressed the need for further research to clarify and understand the patterns of morphological variation in these species complexes. In the present revision, 27 species are recognized in Carapa of which 16 occur in Africa and 11 in America. Nine new species are described and illustrated, and a new combination is proposed. The remaining 17 species correspond to either recently described species or previously described species that had been placed in synonymy. A key to the 27 species and their distribution maps are provided.
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