A new species of Uraeotyphlus (Gymnophiona: Uraeotyphlidae) is described on the basis of a single, distinctive specimen from the Western Ghats of southern Kerala, India. This species is most similar to U. malabaricus (Beddome) in that it lacks a clear differentiation between primary annuli and their higher-order (secondary or tertiary) subdivision. The pattern of annulation among species of Uraeotyphlus falls into two clear types based on the differentiation of primary and higher-order annuli, and the number of annular divisions per vertebra and whether this varies along the body. This difference is reflected in our recognition of oxyurus-group (U. interruptus, U. menoni, U. narayani, U. oxyurus) and malabaricus-group (U. malabaricus and a new species described herein) species within Uraeotyphlus.
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