Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) are introduced pests and have successfully invaded many locations. Their highly plastic reproductive activity might be one of the factors facilitating invasions. Previous studies of the reproductive cycle of this species collected toads from breeding areas, thus biasing samples to breeding individuals. To examine how toad reproductive condition changed through time, and its relationship to observed levels of breeding activity, we sampled toads from nonbreeding habitat over 2 yr, while observing breeding behavior at the nearest pond. Female and male toads were collected and dissected each month, and body mass, gonadal volume, and fat body mass were recorded. Mean gonadal volume of both female and male toads decreased over the breeding season and increased when toads were not breeding. Female reproductive condition was classified into early, middle, or late stages of egg development. The proportion of females with late-stage eggs slowly increased until the point in the breeding season when males started calling, and then decreased. The fat body mass cycle was roughly opposite to the gonadal cycle. The seasonal cycle in toad reproductive condition was correlated with rainfall, indicating that rainfall is one of the causes of variation in the timing of their reproduction. We suggest the highest capture rates of large females with fully mature eggs in traps would be obtained in the late dry to early wet seasons, up to the time when males start calling.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 72 • No. 4