Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling regulates a variety of cellular functions, including proliferation, gene expression, and differentiation. Infection of laryngeal epithelial cells by human papillomaviruses causes recurrent respiratory papillomas, benign tumors characterized by an altered pattern of differentiation. Papilloma cells overexpress the EGFR and have constitutively active extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but overexpression of the lipid phosphatase PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog) reduces activation of Akt by PI3K. We hypothesized that the altered differentiation of papillomas reflects these changes in signaling from the EGFR-ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways and that one or both of these pathways is required for the normal differentiation process in mucosal epithelium. Inhibiting either the enzymatic activity or the synthesis of PI3K in uninfected laryngeal cells blocked expression of keratin-13 (K13), a protein induced during normal differentiation. In contrast, inhibiting activation of ERK had minimal effect. Using ribonucleic acid interference to reduce protein levels of integrin-linked kinase 1 or phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1, intermediates in the activation of Akt by PI3K, or reducing levels of Akt-1 itself did not inhibit K13 expression by normal laryngeal keratinocytes. We conclude that PI3K activation is an important regulator of expression of K13, a marker for the normal differentiation process in human mucosal keratinocytes, that this function does not require activation of Akt-1, and that the failure to express K13 in papilloma cells is not because of reduction in activated Akt.