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5 June 2008 Changes in soluble carbohydrates and starch amounts during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis of Acca sellowiana (Myrtaceae)
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Comparative analysis of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Acca sellowiana showed higher amounts of sucrose, fructose, raffinose, and myo-inositol in zygotic embryos at different developmental stages than in corresponding somatic ones. These differences were mostly constant. In general, glucose levels were significantly lower than the other soluble carbohydrates analyzed, showing minor variation in each embryo stage. Despite the presence of sucrose in the culture medium, its levels conspicuously diminished in somatic embryos compared with the zygotic ones. Raffinose enhanced parallel to embryo development, regardless of its zygotic or somatic origin. Analysis of the soluble carbohydrate composition of mature zygotic cotyledon used as explant pointed out fructose, glucose, myo-inositol, sucrose, and raffinose as the most important. Similar composition was also found in the corresponding somatic cotyledon. Total soluble carbohydrates varied inversely, decreasing in zygotic embryos and increasing in somatic embryos until the 24th d, at which time they increased rapidly about sixfold in zygotic embryos until the 27th d, a period coinciding with the zygotic proembryos formation. Such condition seems to reflect directly the variation of endogenous sucrose level, mainly because glucose and fructose diminished continuously during this time period. This means that, in terms of soluble sugars, zygotic embryo formation occurred under a situation represented by high sucrose amounts, simultaneously with low fructose and glucose levels, while in contrast, somatic embryo formation took place under an endogenous sugar status characterized by a substantial fructose enhancement. Starch levels increased continuously in zygotic embryos and decreased in somatic ones, the reverse to what was found in fructose variation. Starch accumulation was significantly higher in somatic torpedo and cotyledonary embryos than in the corresponding zygotic ones.

Rosete Pescador, Gilberto B. Kerbauy, Jane E. Kraus, Wagner de Melo Ferreira, Miguel Pedro Guerra, and Rita de Cássia L. Figueiredo-Ribeiro "Changes in soluble carbohydrates and starch amounts during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis of Acca sellowiana (Myrtaceae)," In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 44(4), (5 June 2008).
Received: 19 April 2007; Accepted: 10 March 2008; Published: 5 June 2008

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