A participatory landscape monitoring initiative was introduced in the Sangha Tri-National landscape at the frontier of Cameroon, the Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic in 2006. The initiative allowed a broad range of stakeholders, called the Sangha Group, to monitor changes in local peoples' livelihoods and the environment. The group held annual meetings to discuss changes in the landscape. The intention was that the work of the Group would enable adaptation of management interventions. Simple simulation modelling techniques and a set of indicators were used to track changes in the landscape. Indicators were identified by local people who were then invited to assess them annually. The large number and diversity of stakeholders occupying a vast area of forest and a shortage of skilled enumerators meant that indicator values were difficult to measure consistently. However the existence of the models and indicator framework did enrich the discussions amongst the stakeholders and helped them to understand the main drivers of change in the landscape. Interventions of aid agencies and conservation organisations had little impact on local peoples' livelihoods but external influences, notably the global financial crisis in 2008 and the civil strife in the CAR sector beginning in 2011 caused a serious deterioration in livelihoods and the environment in the landscape.
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