This paper illustrates the geographical extent of the Armenian forests at five points in time, from the year 4,000 B.C. to the present. For each period the social and economic context that is most relevant to the use and conservation of the forests is presented. An extensive literature search for the most reliable geological, archaeological, and bio-geographical records was conducted to provide an estimate of the extent of the forest cover in ancient times. According to the estimates produced, and the National Forest Inventories during the Soviet period, the forest cover has decreased from covering approximately 35% of Armenia during the first three millennia B.C., to 8.1% during the 1950s, 11.2% during the 1980s , to7–8% today. The degree of deforestation that Armenia has suffered and the likelihood of losing the remaining highly fragmented forest areas in the coming years is highlighted.
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