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1 January 2009 Response of Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) and Cool-Season Grasses to Defoliation
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Broom snakeweed is one of the most widespread range weeds in western North America. Although a native plant, it increases with disturbance such as overgrazing, fire, and drought, and can dominate sites. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that defoliation of broom snakeweed alone, and along with associated grasses, would reduce its vigor and increase its mortality in bunchgrass plant communities. The study was conducted at two locations: near Nephi, UT in an invaded crested wheatgrass stand and at Howell, UT in a bluebunch wheatgrass/Wyoming big sagebrush community. Clipping treatments consisted of (1) untreated Control; (2) All Clip—clipping all herbaceous vegetation 2 cm above the soil surface, and current season foliar growth of snakeweed; (3) Grass Clip—clipping all grass and forb plants; (4) Snakeweed Clip—clipping current season foliar growth. Treatments were randomly assigned to 1-m2 plots and clipped in May or late August. Plots were measured and clipped at the respective seasons annually from 2004 to 2007. Defoliation of snakeweed in spring in the Snakeweed Clip treatment caused higher mortality and lower size and vigor of remaining plants than the other treatments at the end of the study. Clipping all vegetation also reduced snakeweed density at Nephi, but not at Howell. There was little regrowth of bluebunch wheatgrass at Howell in the All Clip treatment; thus, it was likely to have not competed with snakeweed regrowth for limited soil moisture. Bluebunch wheatgrass cover declined at Howell in the All and Grass Clip treatments. Crested wheatgrass was not adversely affected by spring defoliation in the All and Grass Clip treatments, and it increased in the Snakeweed Clip treatment. There were few differences in the fall defoliations. Spring defoliation of snakeweed put it at a competitive disadvantage with both intact perennial bunchgrasses and regrowth crested wheatgrass, thus enhancing its mortality.

Nomenclature: Broom snakeweed, Guterrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby GUESA; bluebunch wheatgrass, Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love; crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.; Wyoming big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) Welsh.

Michael H. Ralphs "Response of Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) and Cool-Season Grasses to Defoliation," Invasive Plant Science and Management 2(1), 28-35, (1 January 2009).
Received: 10 March 2008; Accepted: 22 September 2008; Published: 1 January 2009

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