Cyliosoma Pocock, 1895, the oldest available genus name for Australian giant pill-millipedes, is revised with a redescription of its type species, Sphaerotherium angulatum Butler, 1878. All 16 species of Epicyliosoma Silvestri, 1917 are transferred to Cyliosoma, together with two species, Sphaerotherium fraternum Butler, 1872 and S. marginepunctatum Karsch, 1881, which are redescribed here. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Sphaerotheriida was conducted using 100 morphological characters and including two Cyliosoma species and four recently described or redescribed species of the family Zephroniidae. Most character states are illustrated for Cyliosoma, including the first SEM images of a member of the genus. Cyliosoma is neither closely related to the South African Sphaerotherium, nor to the other Australian genus, Procyliosoma, and is here placed in a new family, Cyliosomatidae. The monotypic Australian genus Cynotelopus Jeekel, 1986 is also referred to the Cyliosomatidae. The current position of the Cyliosomatidae is in a trichotomy including the South African Sphaerotheriidae and the Malagasy–Indian Arthrosphaeridae.
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Vol. 28 • No. 2