Woodroaches from the genus Cryptocercus Scudder, 1862 are known to display low levels of morphological divergence, yet significant genetic divergence and variability in chromosome number. Compared with Cryptocercus taxa from North America, the diversity of the genus in Asia has received relatively little attention. We performed morphological and karyotypic examinations of multiple taxa from several previously unsampled mountainous areas of central and south-western China, and identified nine candidate species primarily on the basis of chromosome number. We then investigated diversity across all Asian Cryptocercus, through phylogenetic analyses of 135 COI sequences and 74 28S rRNA sequences from individuals of 28 localities, including species delimitation analysis in General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD). Phylogenetic results indicated that individuals from the same locality constituted well supported clades. The congruence of GMYC and ABGD results were in almost perfect accord, with 28 candidate species described on the basis of karyotypes (including the nine identified in this study). We provide evidence that each valley population in the Hengduan Mountains contains a separate evolving lineage. We conclude that the principal cause of the rich Cryptocercus diversity in China has been the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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Vol. 32 • No. 1