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1 March 2001 Electrocardiographic Reference Values for Macaws (Ara species) and Cockatoos (Cacatua species)
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Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded from 41 healthy macaws (Ara species) and 31 healthy cockatoos (Cacatua species). All birds were anesthetized via face mask with isoflurane anesthesia. Standard bipolar (I, II, III) and augmented unipolar (aVR, aVL, aVF, V10) leads were recorded with birds in dorsal recumbency using a direct-writing oscillograph. Heart rates for macaws and cockatoos ranged from 231 to 571 beats per minute. A sinus arrhythmia was observed in 32% and 23% of the macaws and cockatoos, respectively. The mean electrical axis for the macaw ECGs ranged from −76° to −87°, whereas the mean electrical axis for the cockatoo ECGs ranged from −73° to −89°. The QRS was of the rS contour in lead II in 73% of the macaw ECGs and 84% of the cockatoo ECGs. Electrocardiographic parameters reported in this study can aid clinicians in evaluating commonly seen species of macaws and cockatoos.

BARBARA L. OGLESBEE, ROBERT L. HAMLIN, HEATHER KLINGAMAN, JANINE CIANCIOLA, and STEPHEN P. HARTMAN "Electrocardiographic Reference Values for Macaws (Ara species) and Cockatoos (Cacatua species)," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 15(1), 17-22, (1 March 2001).[0017:ERVFMA]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 March 2001

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