Lead, zinc, copper, and iron toxicities are major concerns affecting both wild and captive avian populations. Reference ranges of blood concentrations of these metals in large numbers of birds with no history of environmental exposure have not been reported. This study reports ranges for whole-blood (lead) or plasma (zinc, copper, and iron) concentrations for lead, zinc, copper, and iron in 45 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots that had minimal environmental exposure to any of these metals. Measurements of plasma zinc, copper, and iron concentrations followed a normal distribution, which resulted in reference ranges (mean ± 2 SD) of 1.25–2.29 ppm, 0.07–0.19 ppm, and 2.25–6.25 ppm, respectively. All whole-blood lead concentrations were below 0.02 ppm, and a reference range could not be determined.
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Vol. 15 • No. 1