Although significant advances have been made in establishing artificial breeding techniques in domesticated species over the past 25 years, our understanding of even basic reproductive events in nondomesticated species is, by comparison, extremely limited. A comprehensive and systematic study of the basic and applied reproductive physiology in nondomesticated avian species was undertaken at the Zoological Society of London, England, with the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) used as a model. This paper describes semen collection techniques, semen volume and spermatozoa concentration, seminal plasma composition, structure and ultrastructure of spermatozoa, structure and ultrastructure of the seminal glomus, annual testicular cycle, semen preservation, spermatozoa functional assays, and artificial insemination in budgerigars.
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