Translator Disclaimer
1 September 2003 A Survey of the Choanal and Cloacal Aerobic Bacterial Flora in Free-Living and Captive Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii)
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

The normal flora of free-living red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) has not been well described. We trapped and banded 10 free-living red-tailed hawks and 10 free-living Cooper's hawks during the 1992 fall migration in Marin County, CA, USA. Three choanal and 3 cloacal swabs were collected from each bird to characterize the aerobic bacterial flora. Cloacal swabs were obtained from an additional 24 free-living birds, 13 red-tailed hawks and 11 Cooper's hawks, specifically for isolation of Salmonella species. Moreover, 3 choanal and 3 cloacal swabs were collected for comparison from 7 captive red-tailed hawks and 3 captive Cooper's hawks. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus/Micrococcus species and Corynebacterium species were the most frequent choanal isolates from both free-living and captive red-tailed hawks as well as from free-living Cooper's hawks, while Corynebacterium and Pasteurella species were the most frequent choanal isolates from captive Cooper's hawks. The most frequent cloacal isolates of both free-living and captive red-tailed hawks were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus/Micrococcus species and Streptococcus species; those from free-living Cooper's hawks were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus/Micrococcus species and Escherichia species; and those from captive Cooper's hawks were Escherichia species, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species, and Streptococcus species. Escherichia species were not isolated from the choana of free-living birds, while Pasteurella species were not isolated from the cloaca of any birds. Corynebacterium species and Bacillus species were isolated from the cloaca of free-living red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks but not from captive birds. Salmonella species were isolated from the cloaca of free-living birds of both species but not from captive birds. Although primary bacterial infections are not a common cause of disease in raptors, an understanding of normal microbial flora may help in interpreting the significance of bacterial isolates in ill birds.

Nadine Lamberski, Angus C. Hull, Allen M. Fish, Kimberlee Beckmen, and Teresa Y. Morishita "A Survey of the Choanal and Cloacal Aerobic Bacterial Flora in Free-Living and Captive Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii)," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17(3), 131-135, (1 September 2003). https://doi.org/10.1647/2002-025
Published: 1 September 2003
JOURNAL ARTICLE
5 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
Get copyright permission
Back to Top