Endoscopy has proven to be an important diagnostic tool for avian veterinarians to observe and biopsy internal structures. To date, most of the described endoscopic procedures are single-entry techniques. The use of miniature endoscopic equipment has been pioneered in human pediatric laparoscopy, and many of these techniques can be used in avian medicine. The addition of a second and third port using 2.5- or 3.5-mm cannulae has facilitated the use of 2- or 3-mm instruments within the avian coelom. Triangulation of various instruments coupled with radiosurgical hemostasis has made several endoscopic procedures possible, including salpingohysterectomy and orchidectomy. In addition, endoscope-assisted, minimally invasive procedures, including enterotomy, enterectomy, cloacopexy, and pneumotomy, may be initiated internally and completed by standard surgical techniques. The advent of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery offers important benefits, including rapid and accurate diagnosis, reduced need for an extensive coeliotomy, reduced surgical stress, improved pulmonary function, more stable anesthesia, and reduced surgical and hospitalization periods.
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Vol. 19 • No. 2