Integrated Coastal Zone Management as a strategy for achieving conservation and sustainable multiple use of the coastal zone includes various types of management initiatives. Due to natural phenomena such as tides and winds and to social and economic activities, coastal areas undergo transformation. Coastal erosion and the disappearance of beaches as a result of wrong planning decisions and lack of effective legislation are among the most damaging effects and to reverse them requires application of a series of engineering techniques. Beach nourishment projects as a way towards shore protection and utilization through recreational purposes in the Spanish and Italian coasts are noteworthy in this respect.
In beach nourishment projects, the roles of various entities, both public and private, should be clearly indicated and in the evaluation and execution stage a series of questions should be answered for the successful completion of any nourishment project. Past projects in the Mediterranean and experiences from recent Italian projects in Anzio and Nettuno confirm this. For example, dredging of the entrance channel of the port of Anzio enabled middle-sized ferryboats once again to enter the port (which had not been possible before). This will in turn increase the tourism potential of the town. Nourishment of two beaches at these sites prevented further erosion and provided more area for recreational purposes. Expected economic contribution of beach nourishments to the regional authority was estimated for Nettuno and Anzio; the resulting theoretical pay-back period was found to be 3 yr for the former and 15 yr for the latter.