Costa, A.K.R.; Pereira, L.C.C.; Costa, S.F.S.; Leite, N.R; Flores-Montes, M.J., and Costa, R.M., 2016. Spatiotemporal variation in salinity during drought years in an Amazonian estuary (Taperaçu), Proceedings of the 14th International Coastal Symposium (Sydney, Australia). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 75, pp. 48–52. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.This study investigated the spatial and temporal variation in salinity in an Amazonian estuary (Taperaçu). Data were collected in the field every three months between April 2012 and March 2015. During each field campaign, CTDs were used to collect data over a 25-hour period at three fixed stations, in the upper, middle and lower estuary. Precipitation data were obtained from INMET (Brazilian Institute of Meteorology). March to May were the months of highest precipitation (around 1000–1400 mm), although 2012 and 2013 were considered to be drought years in eastern Amazonia (annual precipitation < 1800 mm). While the Taperaçu does not have any direct fluvial input, it is connected to the Caeté Estuary through the Taici creek and is connected to adjacent wetlands. Salinity varied considerably between seasons, peaking in the dry season (in particular, in December) in the lower sector of the estuary (40). During the rainy season, salinity reached values of less than 10 in the upper estuary. The drought years (2012–2013) were characterized by higher salinity in comparison with more typical years (2014–2015). These results indicate that the minor estuaries of the Amazon coast, such as the Taperaçu, may contribute to the understanding of the influence of atypical climatic periods on hydrological variables (such as salinity), and their implications for the local biological communities.