El-Asmar, H.M.; El-Kafrawy, S.B., and Taha, M.M.N., 2014. Monitoring coastal changes along Damietta promontory and the barrier beach toward Port Said east of the Nile Delta, Egypt.
Monitoring the coastal changes along Nile Delta coast is a very interesting task. It provides an opportunity to implement strategic coastal planning and resource potentiality. Studying sequential periods of thematic mapper (TM) satellite, SPOT, and Egysat-1 images covering the periods from 1973, 1984, 1987, 1991, 2003, 2007, to 2011 for the coastal strip between Damietta and Port Said helps us understand the behavior of this coast in terms of physical and human processes. Human processes are apparently reflected in several faces of erosion/accretion with consequent shoreline changes. The resulting rates and forms of coastal change are unbelievable and unexpected. Average rates of shoreline change from −35 m/y to 40 m/y were measured from the satellites and verified from the ground depending on the implemented protection measures and shoreline orientation in relation to marine processes. We divided the studied coastal strip accordingly into four major sectors. The long sector (sector 4) between Damietta and Port Said (45 km length) is studied through four stations carefully selected in early studies taking into consideration the same processes and the position of newly constructed oil and gas facilities. After the construction of a seawall east of the Damietta branch outlet, Damietta spit shows considerable changes. New areas of erosion and accretion have developed with average rates of −61.45 m/y and 94.82 m/y, respectively, and SE migration of 78.3 m/y. Managing coastal development and reviewing the strategy of constructing oil and gas facilities along the Damietta–Port Said barrier beach are very important tasks. This coast is very narrow, threatened by wave storms, and, most significantly, it is eroding (−18.7 m/y at Station 1 and −9.5 m/y at Station 3). The presence of such facilities may also accelerate the subsidence of this narrow coast. At the same time several promising and ambitious projects suitable for this coastal environment are waiting for investors; one of these projects concerns the triangle of Damietta spit.