Abi-Ghanem, C.; Khalaf, G., and Najjar, E., 2014. Distribution of lead, cadmium, and vanadium in Lebanese coastal sediments and mussels.
To evaluate Lebanon coastal contamination by trace metals (Pb, Cd, and V), we measured their distributions in marine sediments and in bioindicator mussels (Brachidontes variabilis) along the Lebanese coastal zone. Seven sampling sites, Itanieh, Jiyeh, Beirut, Byblos, Batroun, Tripoli, and Arida, were selected. Trace-metal concentrations, determined in pelitic fraction of the sediment (<63 μm), were the highest in Tripoli sediments for Pb (104.4 μg g−1) and Cd (0.23 μg g−1), and in Arida for V (270 μg g−1). In B. variabilis, the highest Pb concentrations corresponded to mussels collected from Batroun (6.32 μg g−1), whereas the highest Cd concentrations were obtained in the Palms Island (off Tripoli) (1.3 μg g−1) and the highest V levels in Batroun (4.94 μg g−1). The determination of the geoaccumulation index shows that the investigated sediments on the Lebanese coast are unpolluted with Cd, moderately to strongly polluted with V at Arida, and extremely polluted with Pb at Tripoli. Pb concentrations in mussels B. variabilis are low compared with levels obtained in polluted areas in the world. However, Cd levels in the studied bioindicators at Batroun and Tripoli are similar to those obtained in other Mediterranean moderately polluted sites. High Cd and V levels in mussels collected at Batroun clearly show the anthropogenic impact of the nearby fertilizer plant.