Rivera-Guzmán, N.E.; Moreno-Casasola, P.; Espinosa, E.C.; Lazos Ruiz, A.E.; Vega, C.M.; Peralta-Peláez, L.A.; Sánchez Higueredo, L.E.; Rodríguez Medina, K.P.A., and Santana Aguayo, K.V., 2017. The biological flora of coastal dunes and wetlands: Halodule wrightii Ascherson.
Information on the seagrass Halodule wrightii was assembled describing its taxonomy, phylogeny, and geographic distribution and its plant communities, ecology, population biology, reproduction, and biotic interactions. The objective was to review the current understanding of its role as a pioneer species that thrives in nutrient-rich waters and has a broad tolerance range to abiotic factors, such as salinity, temperature, depth, and light. Its short life cycle, high degree of vegetative reproduction, and rapid growth allow it to colonize areas that have undergone disturbances, e.g., those affected by hurricanes. It occurs in monospecific stands or mixed with other seagrasses (Ruppia maritima, Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, Zostera marina) and exhibits both vegetative and sexual reproduction but does not flower often. Worsening water quality is the main cause of seagrass decline in the world, along with other human activities, such as fishing, dredging, boating, and tourism. Given its usefulness, it is important to establish programs for the restoration and management of this species.