Coch, N.K., 2019. Forensic analysis of the 1893 “New York City” hurricane: Implications for the future. Journal of Coastal Research, 35(4), 729–736. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Examination of an offshore-replenished beach in New York City in 1995 revealed that it contained anthropogenic debris from the distant past. Dating of the debris determined that the archeological items were deposited from a category 1 hurricane that made landfall in New York City on the nights of 23–24 August 1893. This “midnight storm” caused great damage in spite of its relatively low category on the Saffir-Simpson scale. A detailed study of the storm was conducted because it was the first hurricane to hit a major metropolitan area with many high-rise buildings. Subsequent discovery of the original weather records from New York City allowed for the re-creation of meteorological conditions in 1893, and they account for the great destruction it caused. The meteorological data were also used to conduct a SLOSH analysis that provided additional information on the storm. These analyses helped to determine why the damage was so high. The results of this study have provided valuable information for damage mitigation in future northern hurricanes.