Fernández Lázaro, A., Gutiérrez Serret R.M., Negro, V. and López-Gutiérrez, J.S., 2012. Use of a scrapped ship as a floating breakwater for shore protection.
The purpose of this research is to assess the effectiveness of a ship used as a detached floating breakwater for coastal protection and forming salients of sand or tombolos. Floating breakwaters have been extensively used as port or coastal protection structures and display advantages in terms of construction and ecology, amongst others. However, the greatest problem these structures present is the limited range of wave heights and periods for which they are really effective. Furthermore, ships may be considered as floating structures which, used as breakwaters, would keep the advantages of floating breakwaters and would increase their range of applicability. The possibility of using ships at the conclusion of their useful life for this purpose would also involve greater economic and environmental advantages. Tests were carried out to assess the ship's effectiveness as a detached floating breakwater using a scaled down physical model to determine the vessel's transmission coefficient (Kt) as to regular waves with significant periods of 5 sec to 12 sec and significant wave heights of 1.5 m to 4 m at depths from 20 m to 35 m. The ship proves effective for waves up to 4 m significant height and significant periods up to 9 sec. Hanson and Kraus and Pilarzyk's analytical models, which take transmission coefficients into account, were used to analyse the shore's response to the breakwater protection. The results obtained show that salients form for waves with periods between 6 sec and 9 sec. It is also concluded that the depths tested are far different from the more usual shallow water involved in constructing detached breakwaters and the shore's response is therefore scarce.