Kim, Y.T. and Lee, J.I., 2013. Experiments on Seawater Exchange and Lee Side Stability of Breakwater.
This study deals with the performance of artificial seawater exchange structures and the lee side stability of the associated breakwater structures. Artificial seawater exchange structures are constructed with breakwaters to create circulation of the sea water. The tidal range under consideration from Approximate Lowest Low Water (App. LLW) to Highest Water Level (HWL) of this area is only 0.4 m, therefore, sea water circulation by tidal currents will be negligible. Various designs for structures which can force circulation of the inner harbor water are presented. These were quantitatively evaluated by using 2-D hydraulic model experiments. The results show that the seawater change structure is efficient for exchanging seawater at a rate of 1.5–4.3 m3/s for H s = 2–3 m. The measured damage of the rubble mound at the lee side of the structure due to overtopping is very severe. Various shapes of superstructure and of amour blocks were tested to reduce such damage. The main mechanism for reducing this damage is to ensure that any overtopping is returned to seaward and not to the lee side slope of the structures.