Landim Neto, F.O., Gorayeb, A, Silva, E.V, Pereira Filho, N.S, 2013. Application of the DPSIR model to an estuary of the Brazilian Northeast: a tool for local and regional management
The occupation and use of coastal environments are characterized by a general lack of planning, which provokes increasing pressures and the progressive intensification of problems such as deforestation, the pollution of water resources, inadequate disposal of solid waste, and the illegal occupation of public areas. The present study proposes a diagnosis of the environmental quality of the Guaribas estuary on the western coast of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil, based on the application of the DPSIR model (Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses). In the field, geographic coordinates were collected (GPS navigator), providing the data for the production of maps in an SIG environment, based on the interpretation of high spatial resolution satellite images. Based on the observed constraining factors, it was possible to predict eventual impacts, such as a reduction in fishery productivity, loss of habitats and biodiversity, and numerous problems in the sphere of public health. The appropriation of space was clearly related to the installation of the Pecém shipping terminal and industrial complex, as well as hotels financed by foreign investments attracted by the economic development policies of the state, which conflicts with the interests of the traditional local communities and creates a marked imbalance in the use of coastal space. The results of the present study indicate that the DPSIR model represents an excellent analytical tool for the evaluation of the local scenario, given the integrated analysis of socio-environmental problems, in addition to the identification of potential strategies that may be adapted to the perspective of public authorities, the economic sector, and society in general. Overall, there is clearly an urgent need for the regulation of the use of the coastal environments of western Ceará, Brazil.