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1 April 2013 Observational evidence for the general presence of estuarine circulation in the Wadden Sea
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Flöser, G., Nauw, J., Burchard, H., Riethmüller, R., 2013. Observational evidence for the inward transport of suspended matter by estuarine circulation in the Wadden Sea.

Observational evidence is presented that corroborates the hypothesis that estuarine circulation represents a generic process in the Wadden Sea, independent of (the amount of) river runoff. Long-term current velocity data from three locations in the Wadden Sea, taken on moored acoustical current meters, onboard anchored ships and across-channel ship-of-opportunity platforms show in all cases features concurring with the predictions of the theory: a tidally residual outflow of Wadden Sea waters in the upper part and a residual inflow of seawater in the lower part of the water column. This may be regarded as a further confirmation for a generic process to import suspended sediments from the German Bight / North Sea into the Wadden Sea against the prevailing concentration gradient.

Götz Flöser, Rolf Riethmüller, Janine Nauw, and Hans Burchard "Observational evidence for the general presence of estuarine circulation in the Wadden Sea," Journal of Coastal Research 65(sp2), 1527-1532, (1 April 2013).
Received: 7 December 2012; Accepted: 6 March 2013; Published: 1 April 2013

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