Magarotto, M., Costa, C., Tenedório, J.A., Silva, C.P., Pontes, T., 2014. Methodology for the development of 3D GIS models in the Coastal Zone. In: Green, A.N. and Cooper, J.A.G. (eds.), Proceedings 13th International Coastal Symposium (Durban, South Africa), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 70, pp. 479–484, ISSN 0749-0208.
The present work involved a methodology which analyzes land use changes, from 1961 – 2011 using digital image processing and visual analysis of one satellite image and aerial photos. A simplified methodology using GIS 3D generates models of the coastal zone and its index of vertical growth. The GIS method uses SPRING - INPE (freeware) and ArcScence (ESRI). The data was obtained in the field (2011). The base area used was seventeen census sectors of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). To analyze vertical growth, a Volumetric Compactness Index (CVI) was created. It is able to track the tallest buildings over the years studied. The sectors were analyzed for spatial (N-S; E-W) and temporal (50 years) variations, where they were divided into North, Central and South zones of Boa Viagem. At all sectors occupation indexes are presently high, a strong trend of vertical growth exist that results in high volumetric compactness. Occupation and vertical growth are especially accentuated in the 1981–1996, reaching a maximum in 2011. Vertical growth increased from shore- inland being more prevalent towards the Central Zone, followed by the North and South. As a result of these processes, several problems arose with the most relevant including: impermeable coverings; large volumes of urban runoff; increasing temperatures; wind funneling; traffic jams; air pollution and; deficient water supply, wastewater collection and solid wastes collection. The results obtained using this methodology may be useful for the management of coastal areas and the potential for its development in relation to urban planning and development. The models obtained can prioritize mitigation actions in similarly developed neighborhoods.