Vignesh, T.S.; Suja, C.P., and Geetha, S., 2019. Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using marine bioactive materials for diverse applications. In: Jithendran, K.P.; Saraswathy, R.; Balasubramanian, C.P.; Kumaraguru Vasagam, K.P.; Jayasankar, V.; Raghavan, R.; Alavandi, S.V., and Vijayan, K.K. (eds.), BRAQCON 2019: World Brackishwater Aquaculture Conference. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 86, pp. 170–176. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Scaffolds are polymeric matrices employed in delivering cells and drugs into human body. The scaffold matrices can be fabricated using natural or chemical polymers. In the present study, natural polymers and biomineralized materials extracted from marine sources have been used in the fabrication of the scaffolds. Marine biomaterials are highly biocompatible and they have been used for medicinal purposes. Hence the study focuses on fabricating a novel molluscan nacre incorporated scaffold, using biomaterials like κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii, collagen from Sepia lycidas and chitosan from shrimp shell by freeze-drying method. Due to the osteogenic and dermal regeneration properties of nacre, this novel scaffold can be used for tissue engineering applications. The extracted natural polymers used in fabricating the scaffolds were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR analysis of the sulfated polysaccharide κ-carrageenan showed strong absorbance peaks along 926 cm-1 and 1250 cm-1 which correspond to 3,6 anhydro-d-galactose and sulphur bonds respectively whereas the deacetylated polysaccharide chitosan showed peaks along the 3428 cm-1 and 1635 cm-1 corresponding to OH groups and secondary amine groups. FTIR analysis of collagen exhibited characteristic peaks along 3432 cm-1 and 1641 cm-1 indicating the presence of the amine groups and hydrogen bonds. The structural morphology of the fabricated scaffold has been analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These scaffolds have wide scope in diverse areas and will be a useful model of 3D cell culture for engineering edible meat, tissues and organs.