Translator Disclaimer
1 January 1996 The Forest Birds of Kenya and Uganda
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Robust and rapid ways of assessing and monitoring forest biodiversity are increasingly necessary. To this end, we present a classification of forest birds in Kenya and Uganda into three simple categories: forest-specialists (FF species), forest generalists (F species) and forest visitors (f species). FF and F species, but not f species, are dependent on forests. Out of 479 forest birds in the two countries, 214 are FF, 156 F and 109 f species. Forest-dependent birds, and particularly forest specialists, are less widespread than forest visitors. Uganda has 420 forest birds compared to Kenya's 335, and a higher proportion of forest specialists: this reflects differences in forest structure and biogeography, rather than the area of natural forest. Using this classification allows species lists and densities to be interpreted more meaningfully. The number of FF species is an initial measure of a forest's relative conservation importance, while the proportion of FF, F and f species and their relative abundance will shift according to changes in forest structure.

THE FOREST BIRDS OF KENYA AND UGANDALeon BennunDepartment of Ornithology, National Museums of Kenya, P O Box 40658, Nairobi, KenyaChristine DranzoaDerek PomeroyMakerere UniversityP O Box 7298, Kampala, UgandaABSTRACTRobust and rapid ways of assessing and monitoring forest biodiversity are increasingly necessary. To this end, we present a classification of forest birds in Kenya and Uganda into three simple categories: forest-specialists (FF species), forest generalists (F species) and forest visitors (f species). FF and F species, but not f species, are dependent on forests. Out of 479 forest birds in the two countries, 214 are FF, 156 F and 109 f species. Forest-dependent birds, and particularly forest specialists, are less widespread than forest visitors. Uganda has 420 forest birds compared to Kenya's 335, and a higher proportion of forest specialists: this reflects differences in forest structure and biogeography, rather than the area of natural forest. Using this classification allows species lists and densities to be interpreted more meaningfully. The number of FF species is an initial measure of a forest's relative conservation importance, while the proportion of FF, F and f species and their relative abundance will shift according to changes in forest structure.INTRODUCTIONAs forests come under increasing threat, the birds that live in them are receiving greater attention. From a conservation point of view, studies of forest birds may be especially useful for at least two reasons. First, the richness and composition of a forest's avifauna can give an indication of its overall value for the conservation of biological diversity (ICBP, 1992; Thirgood & Heath; 1994). And second, environmental change and the impacts of habitat alteration (or, more rarely, restoration) are often assessed by monitoring avian communities (Furness & Greenwood, 1993). Because birds are relatively easy to observe, count and identify (Pomeroy, 1992), avifaunal surveys can be made in a fraction of the time and expense required for most other faunal groups.Some species have intrinsic conservation interest because they are rare, endangered or endemic (Collar et al., 1994; Bennun & Njoroge, 1996). In other cases, however, we need an additional guide as to the importance of particular species in indicating forest condition and value. Of particular concern here are those species that may depend upon relatively intact, undisturbed forest. These 'forest specialists' are typical of the forest interior and are the species most likely to disappear when the forest is modified to any great extent. There are other species, 'forest generalists', that may also occur in undisturbed forest but which are able to existand may even be more numerousat the forest edge or in modified and fragmented forests. However, these generalists continue to depend upon forests for some of their resources, such as nesting sites.A third category of species are those which sometimes occur in forests but are more typical of other habitats, especially moist woodlands and thickets. Because they are not dependent upon forests, these species would almost certainly survive in those habitats even if all of the forest disappeared. Their presence in a forest, like that of truly non-forest birds, may sometimes be an indication of forest disturbance.Using a simple classification of this type provides considerably more information than simple lists of species, and helps in the detection of subtle differences between forest avifaunas both in space and time (Bennun & Waiyaki, 1992a-e; Mlingwa et al., in press). In this paper we classify the forest birds of Kenya and Uganda into these three categories and examine ways in which this classification can be used. We follow Hamilton (1990, page 7), in defining forests as "...a type of vegetation dominated by trees and without narrow-leafed grasses in the herbaceous layer".METHODSThe classification has been developed from earlier versions for the forest birds of Uganda (Pomeroy, 1988) and Kenya (Bennun & Waiyaki, 1992f). Our classification is based primarily upon the habitat preferences of birds given by Britton (1980). Since these were developed for an entirely different purpose, this gives the classification a degree of independence. However, we have modified some of Britton's (1980) descriptions in the light of our own field experience, and that of a number of experienced colleagues who have commented upon earlier versions. Some disagreement will always remain about such a classification, although ours represents the consensus view of a number of forest ornithologists. However, we stress that the purpose of the list is not to provide a definitive statement about species' habitat requirements, but to allow standardised comparisons between and within particular forests. The structure of different forest types in East Africa varies greatly and so does the response to disturbance (see Bennun & Fanshawe, in press), which makes it difficult to set down definitions in structural terms. Our distinction here is simply between forest that largely has the original structure it possessed when not subjected to human disturbance ('intact' or 'undisturbed' forest), and forest that has been altered to a marked degree by human impacts ('disturbed' or 'secondary' forest), or is transitional in character between forest and other habitats (as in edges, small patches and narrow forest strips).Taxonomy and nomenclature follow the revised East African list (OS-C, 1996). We have distinguished different races of a species when these show consistently different habitat preferences.DEFINITIONSWe use the following working definitions in this paper:Forest-dependent speciesFF species (forest specialists) are the 'true' forest birds, characteristic of the interior of undisturbed forest. They may persist in secondary forest and forest patches if their particular ecological requirements are met. Where they do occur away from the interior, they are usually less common. They are rarely seen in non-forest habitats. Breeding is almost invariably within forest.F species (forest generalists) may occur in undisturbed forest but are also regularly found in forest strips, edges and gaps. They are likely to be commoner there and in secondary forest than in the interior of intact forest. Breeding is typically within forest.Forest visitorsf species are birds which are often recorded in forest, but are not dependent upon it. They are almost always more common in non-forest habitats, where they are most likely to breed.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONOur classification is shown in Appendix 1. We identified 479 forest birds in Kenya and Uganda (treating separately two sub-species each of Little Sparrow Hawk Accipiter minullus.-Black Cuckoo Cuculus clamosus and African Barred Owlet Glaucidium capense), slightly over one-third of the total avifauna of 1,232 species (OS-C, 1996). table 1 summarises the numbers of species in each category in Kenya and Uganda.Table 1. The numbers of species in each category of forest birds in Kenya and UgandaKenya onlyBoth countriesUganda onlyTotalFF-species2783104214F-species269436156f-species6994109TOTAL59276⟨sup⟩a⟨/sup⟩144479⟨sup⟩a⟨/sup⟩Total numbers of forest bird species⟨sup⟩a⟨/sup⟩: Kenya 335, Uganda 420⟨sup⟩a⟨/sup⟩Sub-species of three species are counted separately differ in their habitat preferencesOf the 214 FF species, 61.2% are found in only one of the two countries and 38.8% are shared by both. Corresponding proportions for the other categories are F, 39.7% and 60.3% (n =156) and f, 9.2% and 90.8% (n = 109). Clearly, the more specialised forest birds are less likely to occur in both countries (x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩= 80.8, df = 2, P ⟨ 0.0001), implying that they tend to have smaller ranges.The forest-dependent species confined to Kenya are mostly from the coastal forests, with a small element from the Taita Hills and the montane forests of central Kenya. Most of the species confined to Uganda occur in the west of the country. These include montane species of the Albertine Rift refugium (Prigogine, 1985) and lowland birds characteristic of the Congo basin forests. All these areas have characteristic species with very restricted ranges (⟨ 50,000 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩), and are categorised as Endemic Bird Areas (ICBP, 1992; Stattersfield et al., in press). Thus, the smaller ranges of FF birds in East Africa are linked to biogeographical factors: they are more likely than less specialised species to be confined to a restricted area of avian endemism. This pattern concords with the view that such areas acted as 'refuges' during periods of the Pleistocene when forests shrank in size (e.g. Hamilton 1988, Lovett 1993). Forest-specialist species would presumably be less capable than others of dispersing through intermediate habitats, such as woodland or riverine forest strips.Uganda has around the same number of F and f species as Kenya (table 1) but considerably more FF birds187 versus 110. Thus, the forest-dependent birds confined to Uganda include a much higher proportion of FF species (74.3%) than those confined to Kenya (50.9%, x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ = 8.6, df = 1, P = 0.003). This is not the result of differences in forest area, since Kenya in fact has more natural forest cover (12,400 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩, Wass 1995) than Uganda (7,400 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩, Howard 1991). However, most of Kenya's forest cover is montane or a relatively dry, low coastal form. Both these types are less rich in bird species than the moist lowland forests of Uganda (see below). Several Ugandan forests are also close to, or part of, the so-called Central Refugium, which has more endemic forest species than any other part of Africa (Stuart 1985).Conservation significanceSince birds of the forest interior (the FF species) appear to be less adaptable than those of the forest edge, it is not surprising that many of them also have relatively limited distributions. Hence they are the ones of greatest conservation concern.Pomeroy and Ssekabiira (1990) used data on bird distributions from Snow (1978) for non-passerines and Hall and Moreau (1970) for passerines to estimate the ranges of land birds in Africa. The forest birds of Kenya and Uganda are a subset of these data and the extents of their distributions are shown in figure 1. (Some species could not be included, for example because of taxonomic revisions). The earlier study had found that various categories of specialist species tended to have smaller distributions than non-specialists; and non-passerines were more widely distributed than passerines. These generalisations also apply to the more detailed data for forest birds in East Africa (figure 1). The global distributions of FF-species are generally smaller than those of F-species, and much smaller than the f-species. For each of these three categories, the passerines have smaller distributions on average than the non-passerines (table 2).Table 2. The extents of the global distributions of various categories of forest birds. The figures represent the modal number of squares occupied by species in each group. Each square is 2.5° of latitude by 2.5° longitudeNon-passerinesPasserinesFF species2518F species4528f species10555Reflecting their smaller ranges and lower adaptability, FF species are more likely to be threatened with extinction than F or f species. In Kenya and Uganda, 21 FF species (9.8% of the total: table 1) are regarded as globally threatened or near-threatened (Collar et al. 1994), compared to just three F species (1.9%; x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ = 8.47, P ⟨ 0.005)⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩. No f species is listed as globally threatened.⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩This ignores Taita Apalis Apalis fuscigularis, Taita White-eye Zosterops silvanus and Kulal White-eye Z. kulalensis, listed by Collar, et al. (1994) but not recognised as valid species in our list, where Taita Apalis is treated as a sub-species of Bar-throated Apalis (FF) and the white-eyes as sub-species of Montane White-eye (F). Including these species makes no difference to the conclusion from this analysis (test for difference in the proportions of threatened FF and F species that are threatened, x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩= 6.02, P ⟨ 0.025).Figure 1. The extents of the global distributions of East African forest birds. The units are squares of 2.5° of latitude by 2.5° longitude. (Note that the total forested area in Africa is equivalent to about 50 squares, but a much larger number of squares contains at least some forest.)The same pattern is clear at a regional level, table 3 shows the number of forest birds in each category that are classed as threatened with extinction in the eastern African region (Bennun & Njoroge, 1996; note that this classification excludes some species that have marginal ranges or populations in East Africa). The proportion of species that is threatened or near-threatened clearly rises with the degree of forest-dependence, from 3.7% for f species to 12.7% and 31.1% for F and FF species respectively (x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ = 37.8, df = 2, P ⟨ 0.0001). The ratio of threatened to near-threatened species is higher for the FF than the F category (FF, 70.0% of the combined total threatened; F, 38.9%; x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ = 5.4, df = 1, P = 0.02).Table 3. Numbers of species in each category of forest-dependence that are threatened or near-threatened with extinction in East Africa (Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda; from Bennun & Njoroge, 1996). The numbers of species considered not threatened or not qualifying for consideration because of marginal ranges or population are also shownFFFfTotalThreatened/near-threatenedCritical1011Endangered8109Vulnerable266032Near-threatened1511430Total5018472Not threatened111124105340Not qualifying for consideration5314067Total214156109479The FF species are also the least known. The Kampala area has had many birders over the last 100 years. Yet in a comprehensive review of the area's avifauna (Carswell, 1986), 75% of the FF species recorded had no breeding records and/or an unclear status. Comparative figures for F and f species were 32.3% and 13.3% respectively (x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ = 62.3, df = 2, P ⟨ 0.001; comparing FF and F species only, x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ = 24.7, df = 1, P ⟨ 0.0001; for numbers in each category, see table 4). This difference is much less pronounced in the Kenya bird atlas square containing Kakamega Forest, where the forest-interior avifauna has been specifically studied by a number of workers (e.g. Zimmerman, 1972; Mann, 1985) (proportion of birds with confirmed breeding records, FF = 40.5%, F = 49.4%, n = 74, 77 respectively, x⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ = 1.2, P ⟩ 0.25; records from Lewis & Pomeroy [1989] for atlas square 48D). However, even in Kakamega breeding has been confirmed for well under half the forest avifauna, which is probably composed almost entirely of resident species. This reinforces the conclusion that much more attention generally needs to be paid to forest-dependent birds, especially the forest-specialist passerines.Forest bird listsThe list in Appendix 1 corresponds closely to other, more geographically limited lists, for example Stuart (1983) and Mlingwa et al (1993). Dowsett et al. (undated) list over 270 species from the Nyungwe forest of Rwanda, almost all of which occur in Uganda and many in Kenya too. They differ in only three cases in their choice of forest/non-forest categories (although they have no 'edge' category). Similarly, there is close agreement as to what is a forest species in the lists of birds for Kakamega Forest in western Kenya (Zimmerman, 1972; Mann, 1985; Savalli, 1989) and for the Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda (Wilson, 1982).Agreement seems less close for places further away, such as Senegal (Thiollay, 1985) and Malawi (Dowsett-Lemaire, 1989). For instance, of 105 species of the forest interior and canopy in Malawi, about half are edge species in Kenya and Uganda. There is good agreement about forest species of hornbills, woodpeckers, greenbuls, alethes and warblers between Senegal and the East African list; but there are some interesting differences. Thus Thiollay (1985) considers the Bat Hawk Macheirhamphus alcinus and African Cuckoo-Hawk Aviceda cuculoides to be forest interior birds, whereas Britton (1980) lists them as occurring mainly in forest edge and woodland. Conversely, several Ugandan forest greenbuls are found in other habitats in west Africa. Thus the Simple Greenbul Clorocichla simplex is described by Keith et al. (1992) as a bird of 'brushy areas outside true forest, including dense scrub in savanna, orchard bush...' and the Honeyguide Greenbul Baeopogon indicator as preferring (amongst others) 'open habitats... and plantations'. Puvel's Illadopsis Illadopsis puveli is a bird of 'secondary scrub and gallery forest' in West Africa (Allport et al. 1996), but the recently discovered population in Budongo Forest, Uganda, is confined to undisturbed, closed-canopy Cynometra forest (Owiunji 1996). In other words, some of the species with more extensive distributions occupy substantially different habitats in different parts of their range.Kenya and Uganda together make up less than 3 % of the Afrotropical region. In an area this size, it appears possible to categorise forest species successfully. In a few species, such as Black Cuckoo Cuculus clamosus or Cardinal Woodpecker Dendropicos fuscescens, two sub-species have very different habitat preferences. Apart from these cases, indicated in the list, we have not encountered any species that shifts between forest-dependence categories within Kenya and Uganda.Using the listThe number of FF species in a particular forest provides one indication of its conservation importance. table 4 gives some examples. Different forest types vary greatly in the numbers of forest-dependent species. Lowland Guineo-Congolian forests and Albertine Rift forests are the richest, with forests of the Kenyan highlands following. Coastal forests have notably few forest-dependent species. Clearly, direct comparisons across types may be misleading, since very different biogeographical histories are involved (see Hamilton, 1982; Stuart, 1985; Lovett, 1993; Stuart et al., 1993; Fjeldsa, 1994; Mlingwa et al., in press). Within forest types, however, the list can be useful. Mlingwa et at. (in press) use the number of FF species, together with other important variables such as forest size and the presence of rare and endemic species, to assess the relative conservation importance of eastern African coastal forests.Shifts in the proportion or relative abundance of FF and F species can be used to assess or monitor the effects of forest management on bird communities. Bennun & Waiyaki (1992a) conducted baseline surveys in two adjacent parts of the Trans-Mara Forest, which had undergone differing intensities of logging. Species composition was similar in the two sites, but densities of many FF species were higher in the less-disturbed site. Similar results were obtained in Kakamega (Bennun & Waiyaki, 1992c). This shift in relative densities of FF versus other birds seems to be one of the few consistent responses of East African bird species to forest disturbance, and thus a potentially useful feature for forest monitoring (Bennun & Fanshawe, in press).This list is based on the habitat preferences of birds in undisturbed systems. The response of particular forest-specialists to forest degradation (e.g. from selective logging) will vary. To begin with, different forest types can show very different structural responses to disturbance (Fanshawe, 1995). These changes in structure will affect bird species in different ways. For example, the African Broadbill Smithornis capensis occurs in pine plantation forest around Kibale Forest. Although this is a highly disturbed, indeed artificial, habitat, the dense shade and an open mid-storey mimic the conditions it favours in natural forest (LAB, unpubl. observations). In Mkongani Forest in the Shimba Hills, however, this species is confined to the small patches of unlogged forest that occur within a matrix of logged-over areas with an open canopy (Bennun & Waiyaki, 1992e and unpubl. data). Despite some specific exceptions we can generally expect declines in the populations of forest-specialists, particularly hole-nesting and insectivorous species, following forest degradation (Johns, 1988; Lambert, 1992; Thiollay, 1992; Fanshawe, 1995; Owiunji, 1996). One advantage of using the classification presented here is that it allows effects to be assessed easily at the community level, as well as species-by-species if required.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe greatly appreciate the careful comments of a number of colleagues, especially Neil Baker, Tom Butynski, John Fanshawe, Lincoln Fishpool, Ian Francis, Jan Kalina and Edward Waiyaki, on the draft classification of forest birds. Peter Njoroge kindly assisted to categorise species on the regional Red Data List, and comments by Lincoln Fishpool and Andrew Plumptre helped to improve an earlier version of the manuscript.REFERENCESAllport, G.A., M.J. Ausden, L.D.C. Fishpool, P.V. Hayman, P.A. Robertson & P. Wood (1996). Identification of Illadopsis spp. in the Upper Guinea forest. Bull. African Bird Club 3: 26-30.Bennun, L. & J. Fanshawe (in press). Using forest birds to evaluate forest management: an East African perspective. pp. 1022 in Doolan, S. (ed.) African rainforests and the conservation of biodiversity. Oxford: Earthwatch Europe.Bennun, L.A. & P.K. Njoroge (eds) (1996). Birds to watch in East Africa: A preliminary Red Data list. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 23.Bennun, L.A. & E.M. Waiyaki (1992a). Using birds to monitor environmental change in the Mau Forests. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 2.Bennun, L.A. & E.M. Waiyaki (1992b). An ornithological survey of the Mau Forest Complex. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 3.Bennun, L.A. & E.M. Waiyaki (1992c). An ornithological survey of Kakamega Forest. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 4.Bennun, L.A. & E.M. Waiyaki (1992d). Bird communities of the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 5.Bennun, L.A. & E.M. Waiyaki (1992e). Forest birds of the Shimba Hills and Maluganji: A survey. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 10.Bennun, L.A. & E.M. Waiyaki (1992f). A list and classification of forest birds in Kenya. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 6.Britton, P.L. (ed.) (1980). Birds of East Africa: their habitat, status and distribution. EANHS, Nairobi.Carswell, M C. (1986). Birds of the Kampala area. Scopus Special Supplement Number 2. EANHS, Nairobi.Collar, N.J., M.J. Crosby & A. Stattersfield (1994). Birds to Watch 2: The world list of threatened birds. BirdLife Conservation Series no. 4. BirdLife International, Cambridge, England.Dowsett, R.J., F. Dowsett-Lemaire & J.-P. Vande Weghe (no date). Les oiseaux de la forêt de Nyungwe. Tauraco Study Report. Office Rwandais de tourisme et des Parcs Nationaux, Kigali.Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1989. Ecological and biogeographical aspects of forest bird communities in Malawi. Scopus 13: 180.Fanshawe, J.H. (1995) The effects of selective logging on the bird community of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.Fjeldså, J. (1994). Geographical patterns for relict and young species in Africa and South America, and the dilemma of ranking biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 207226.Furness, R.W. & J.J.D. Greenwood (eds) (1993). Birds as monitors of environmental change. Chapman and Hall, London.Hall, B.P. & R.E. Moreau (1970). An atlas of speciation in African passerine birds. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London.Hamilton, A.C. (1982). Environmental history of East Africa: a study of the Quaternary. Academic Press, New York.Hamilton, A.C. (1988). Guenon evolution and forest history. Pp. 1334 in Gautier-Hion, A., Bourlière, F., Gautier, J-P., Kingdon, J. (eds), A primate radiation: Evolutionary biology of the African guenons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Hamilton, A.C. (1990). A field guide to Ugandan forest trees. Makerere University, Kampala.Howard, P.C. (1991). Nature conservation in Uganda's tropical forest reserves. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.ICBP (1992). Putting biodiversity on the map: priority areas for global conservation. ICBP, Cambridge, England.Johns, A.D. (1988). Effects of 'selective' logging on rain forest structure and composition and some consequences for frugivores and foliovores. Biotropica 20: 3137.Kalina, J. and T.M. Butynski (1996). Checklist of birds of the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest National Park. EANHS, Nairobi.Keith, S., E.K. Urban & C.H. Fry (1992). The birds of Africa, Volume 4. Academic Press, London.Lambert, F.R. (1992). The consequences of selective logging for Bornean lowland forest birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 335: 443457.Lewis, A.D. & D.E. Pomeroy (1989). A bird atlas of Kenya. A A Balkema, Rotterdam.Lovett, J.C. (1993). Climatic history and forest distribution in eastern Africa. Pp. 2329 in J.C. Lovett & S.K. Wasser (eds). Biogeography and ecology of the rainforests of eastern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Mann, C.F. (1985). An avifaunal study in Kakamega Forest, Kenya, with particular reference to species diversity, weight and moult. Ostrich, 56: 236262.Mlingwa, C.O.F., M.R. Huxham & N.D. Burgess (1993). The avifauna of Kazimzumbwe Forest reserve. Scopus, 16: 8188.Mlingwa, C.O.F., E.M. Waiyaki, L.A. Bennun & N.D. Burgess (in press). The birds of eastern Africa's coastal forests. In N.D. Burgess (ed.) Coastal forests in eastern Africa: biodiversity and conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.OS-C (1996). Checklist of the birds of East Africa. Ornithological Sub-committee of the East Africa Natural History Society, Nairobi.Owiunji, I. (1996). The long term effects of forest management on the bird community of Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. MSc thesis, Makerere University, Kampala.Pomeroy, D.E. (1988). The Ff list: a preliminary list of forest birds in Uganda. Kampala: Makerere University Department of Zoology (cyclostyled).Pomeroy, D.E. (1992). Counting Birds. AWF Technical Handbook Series no. 6. African Wildlife Foundation, Nairobi.Pomeroy, D.E. & D. Ssekabiira (1990). An analysis of the distribution of terrestrial birds in Africa. African Journal of Ecology 28: 113.Prigogine, A. (1985). Conservation of the avifauna of the forests of the Albertine Rift. Pp. 277296 in A.W. Diamond & T.E. Lovejoy (eds) Conservation of tropical forest birds. ICBP Technical publication No. 4. ICBP, Cambridge, England.Savalli, U.M. (1989). Checklist of birds of the Kakamega Forest and National Reserve. Published privately.Snow, D.W. (ed.) (1978). An atlas of speciation of African non-passerine birds. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London.Stattersfield, A.J., M.J. Crosby, AJ. Long & D.C. Wege (in press). Endemic bird areas of the world. Priorities for biodiversity conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series no. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge.Stuart, S.N. (1983). Biogeographical and ecological aspects of forest bird communities in eastern Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University.Stuart, S.N. (1985). Rare forest birds and their conservation in eastern Africa. Pp. 187196 in A.W. Diamond & T.E. Lovejoy (eds) Conservation of tropical forest birds. ICBP Technical publication No. 4. ICBP, Cambridge.Stuart, S.N., F.P. Jensen, S. Brøgger-Jensen & R.I. Miller (1993). The zoogeography of the montane forest avifauna of eastern Africa. Pp. 203228 in J.C. Lovett & S.K. Wasser (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of the rainforests of eastern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Thiollay, J-M. (1985). The west African forest avifauna: a review. Pp. 171186 in A.W. Diamond & T.E. Lovejoy (eds) Conservation of tropical forest birds. ICBP Technical publication No. 4. ICBP, Cambridge.Thiollay, J.M. (1992). Influence of selective logging on bird species diversity in a Guianan rain forest. Conservation Biology 6: 4762.Thirgood, S.J. & M.F. Heath (1994). Global patterns of endemism and the conservation of biodiversity. Pp. 207227 in P.L. Forey, C.J. Humphries & R.I. Vane-Wright (eds) Systematics and conservation evaluation. Systematics Association Special Volume no. 50. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England.Wass, P. (ed.) (1995). Kenya's indigenous forests: Status, management and conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Wilson, R. (1982). The birds of the Parc National des Volcans. Mountain Gorilla Project, Rwanda.Wilson, S.E. (ed.) (1995). Bird and mammal checklists for ten national parks in Uganda, from the National Biodiversity Data Bank and other sources. Uganda National Parks, Kampala.Zimmerman, D.A. (1972). The avifauna of Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, including a bird population study. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 149: 255340.APPENDIX 1: LIST AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOREST BIRDS OF KENYA AND UGANDAOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.Threskiornithidae: Ibises and spoonbills6352FFAfrican Green IbisBostrychia olivaceaK64FSpot-breasted IbisBostrychia raraUAnatidae: Ducks and geese75FHartlaub's DuckPteronetta hartlaubiUAccipitridae: Vultures, eagles, hawks etc.97139FAfrican Cuckoo-HawkAviceda cuculoidesKU98140FEurasian Honey BuzzardPernis apivorusKU99143FBat HawkMacheiramphus alcinusKU10587fHooded VultureNecrosyrtes monachusKU11399FSouthern Banded Snake EagleCircaetus fasciolatusK11497FBanded Snake EagleCircaetus cinerascensKU11796fAfrican Harrier-HawkPolyboroides typusKU125111FAfrican GoshawkAccipiter tachiroKU126104FFChestnut-flanked GoshawkAccipiter castaniliusU127102fShikraAccipiter badiusKU130105FF(Western) Little SparrowhawkAccipiter minullus erythropusU130107fLittle SparrowhawkA. m. minullus/A. m. tropicalisKU133110FRufous-breasted SparrowhawkAccipiter rufiventrisKU134106FGreat SparrowhawkAccipiter melanoleucusKU135136FFLong-tailed HawkUrotriorchis macrourusU137129fLizard BuzzardKaupifalco monogrammicusKU139124FFMountain BuzzardButeo oreophilusKU154126FAyres's Hawk EagleHieraaetus ayresiiKU155130fLong-crested EagleLophaetus occipitalisKU156125FFCassin's Hawk EagleSpizaetus africanusU157135FFAfrican Crowned EagleStephanoaetus coronatusKUFalconidae: Falcons166152FAfrican HobbyFalco cuvieriKUPhasianidae: Quails and francolins184174FFForest FrancolinFrancolinus lathamiU191178FFNahan's FrancolinFrancolinus nahaniU195184FScaly FrancolinFrancolinus squamatusKU196173FJackson's FrancolinFrancolinus jacksoniKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.197179FFHandsome FrancolinFrancolinus nobilisUNumididae: Guineafowl202188/9FCrested GuineafowlGuttera pucheraniKURallidae: Rails and relatives208213FWhite-spotted FlufftailSarothrura pulchraKU209211FFBuff-spotted FlufftailSarothrura elegansKU214200FFNkulengu RailHimantornis haematopusUColumbidae: Pigeons and doves354358FAfrican Green PigeonTreron calvaKU357357FTambourine DoveTurtur tympanistriaKU358355fBlue-spotted Wood DoveTurtur aferKU359356fEmerald-spotted Wood DoveTurtur chalcospilosKU362338FFWhite-naped PigeonColumba albinuchaU363343FFWestern Bronze-naped PigeonColumba iriditorquesU364340FFEastern Bronze-naped PigeonColumba delegorgueiKU365339FFOlive PigeonColumba arquatrixKU367344FFAfep PigeonColumba unicinctaKU369337FFLemon DoveAplopelia larvataKU370350fRed-eyed DoveStreptopelia semitorquataKU373346fRing-necked DoveStreptopelia capicolaKU376348fDusky Turtle DoveStreptopelia lugensKUPsittacidae: Parrots and lovebirds378371FFGrey ParrotPsittacus erithacusKU379368fBrown-necked ParrotPoicephalus suahelicusU380366FFRed-fronted ParrotPoicephalus gulielmiKU382365FBrown-headed ParrotPoicephalus cryptoxanthusK384363fRed-headed LovebirdAgapornis pullariusKU385364FBlack-collared LovebirdAgapornis swindernianusUMusophagidae: Turacos390372FGreat Blue TuracoCorythaeola cristataKU391377FRoss's TuracoMusophaga rossaeKU392380FFRuwenzori TuracoRuwenzorornis johnstoniU393383fPurple-crested TuracoTauraco porphyreolophusKU396384FFBlack-billed TuracoTauraco schuettiiKU397378FFischer's TuracoTauraco fischeriK398379FFHartlaub's TuracoTauraco hartlaubiKU399381fWhite-crested TuracoTauraco leucolophusKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.Cuculidae: Cuckoos and coucals405394fLevaillant's CuckooOxylophus levaillantiiKU407400fThick-billed CuckooPachycoccyx audebertiKU408396fBlack Cuckoo (i)Cuculus clamosus gabonensisKU408396FFBlack Cuckoo (ii)Cuculus clamosus clamosusKU409399FRed-chested CuckooCuculus solitariusKU412398fAsian Lesser CuckooCuculus poliocephalusKU413398fMadagascar Lesser CuckooCuculus rochiiKU414385FFDusky Long-tailed CuckooCercococcyx mechowiU415387FFOlive Long-tailed CuckooCercococcyx olivinusU416386FFBarred Long-tailed CuckooCercococcyx montanusKU417389FAfrican Emerald CuckooChrysococcyx cupreusKU418390FFYellow-throated CuckooChrysococcyx flavigularisU419391fKlaas's CuckooChrysococcyx klaasKU421401FYellowbillCeuthmochares aereusKU425405fSenegal CoucalCentropus senegalensisKUStrigidae: Typical owls430421FFSokoke Scops OwlOtus ireneaeK437415FFFraser's Eagle OwlBubo poensisU440425FPel's Fishing OwlScotopelia peliKU442420FFRed-chested OwletGlaucidium tephronotumKU443417FAfrican Barred OwletGlaucidium capense schlefferiK443418FFChestnut OwletGlaucidium capense castaneumU444416FAfrican Wood OwlStrix woodfordiKU445411FFAfrican Long-eared OwlAsio abyssinicusKUCaprimulgidae: Nightjars448436FFiery-necked NightjarCaprimulgus pectoralisKU449437FMontane NightjarCaprimulgus poliocephalusKU458426FFBates's NightjarCaprimulgus batesiUApodidae: Swifts464456FFSabine's SpinetailRaphidura sabiniKU465455FFCassin's SpinetailNeafrapus cassiniU466454FBöhm's SpinetailNeafrapus boehmiK467457FMottled SpinetailTelacanthura ussheriKU468453FScarce SwiftSchoutedenapus myoptilusKUTrogonidae: Trogons484462FNarina TrogonApaloderma narinaKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.485463FFBar-tailed TrogonApaloderma vittatumKUAlcedinidae: Kingfishers486473fGrey-headed KingfisherHalcyon leucocephalaKU490474FBlue-breasted KingfisherHalcyon malimbicaU492471FFChocolate-backed KingfisherHalcyon badiaU493469FHalf-collared KingfisherAlcedo semitorquataK494468FFShining-blue KingfisherAlcedo quadribrachysKU496467FFWhite-bellied KingfisherAlcedo leucogasterU497478fAfrican Pygmy KingfisherIspidina pictaKU498477FFAfrican Dwarf KingfisherIspidina leconteiUMeropidae: Bee-eaters501480fEurasian Bee-eaterMerops apiasterKU505479fWhite-throated Bee-eaterMerops albicollisKU508484FFBlack Bee-eaterMerops gularisU509486FFBlue-headed Bee-eaterMerops muelleriK514488FCinnamon-chested Bee-eaterMerops oreobatesKUCoraciidae: Rollers522500fBroad-billed RollerEurystomus glaucurusKU523501FFBlue-throated RollerEurystomus gularisUPhoeniculidae: Wood-hoopoes525503FFWhite-headed Wood-hoopoePhoeniculus bolleiKU526504FFForest Wood-hoopoePhoeniculus castaneicepsUBucerotidae: Hornbills535526FFWhite-crested HornbillTropicranus albocristatusU536521FFBlack Dwarf HornbillTockus hartlaubiU537516FFRed-billed Dwarf HornbillTockus camurusU543515fCrowned HornbillTockus alboterminatusKU544519FAfrican Pied HornbillTockus fasciatusU547510FTrumpeter HornbillBycanistes bucinatorK548512FFPiping HornbillBycanistes fistulatorU549509FSilvery-cheeked HornbillBycanistes brevisK550513FBlack-and-white-casqued HornbillBycanistes subcylindricusKU551511FFWhite-thighed HornbillBycanistes cylindricusU552514FFBlack-wattled HornbillCeratogymna atrataUCapitonidae: Barbets and tinkerbirds553533FGrey-throated BarbetGymnobucco bonaparteiKU554530FWhite-eared BarbetStactolaema leucotisKOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.556531FFGreen BarbetStactolaema olivaceaK557553FSpeckled TinkerbirdPogoniulus scolopaceusKU558550FFWestern Green TinkerbirdPogoniulus coryphaeusU559554FFEastern Green TinkerbirdPogoniulus simplexK560551FFMoustached Green TinkerbirdPogoniulus leucomystaxKU561547FFRed-rumped TinkerbirdPogoniulus atroflavusU562555FFYellow-throated TinkerbirdPogoniulus subsulphureusU563548FYellow-rumped TinkerbirdPogoniulus bilineatusKU566529FFYellow-spotted BarbetBuccanodon duchailluiKU567538FHairy-breasted BarbetTricholaema hirsutaKU573545FRed-faced BarbetLybius rubrifaciesU575546fBlack-collared BarbetLybius torquatusKU576576fBrown-breasted BarbetLybius melanopterusK578534fDouble-toothed BarbetLybius bidentatusKU580556FYellow-billed BarbetTrachylaemus purpuratusKUIndicatoridae: Honeyguides584564FFSpotted HoneyguideIndicator maculatusU585569fScaly-throated HoneyguideIndicator variegatusKU586563fGreater HoneyguideIndicator indicatorKU587566fLesser HoneyguideIndicator exilisKU588561FFThick-billed HoneyguideIndicator conirostrisKU589562FFLeast HoneyguideIndicator exilisKU590570FFWillcocks's HoneyguideIndicator willcocksiU591568FFDwarf HoneyguideIndicator pumilioU592565fPallid HoneyguideIndicator meliphilusKU593FFLyre-tailed HoneyguideMelichneutes robustusU594571FFZenker's HoneyguideMelignomon zenkeriU595572FFCassin's HoneybirdProdotiscus insignisKU596574fEastern HoneybirdProdotiscus zambesiaeK597573fWahlberg's HoneybirdProdotiscus regulusKUPicidae: Wrynecks and woodpeckers599575fRed-throated WryneckJynx ruficollisKU600577FFAfrican PiculetSasia africanaU603578FGolden-tailed WoodpeckerCampethera abingoniKU604FMombasa WoodpeckerCampethera mombassicaK605580fGreen-backed WoodpeckerCampethera cailliautiiKU606584FFFine-banded WoodpeckerCampethera tullbergiKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.607582FBuff-spotted WoodpeckerCampethera nivosaKU608581FBrown-eared WoodpeckerCampethera caroliKU610585fCardinal Woodpecker (race lepidus)Dendropicos fuscescens lepidusKU611586FGabon WoodpeckerDendropicos gabonensisU613594fBearded WoodpeckerDendropicos namaquusKU614592FYellow-crested WoodpeckerDendropicos xantholophusKU615589FFElliot's WoodpeckerDendropicos elliotiiU616590fGrey WoodpeckerDendropicos goertaeKU617591FFOlive WoodpeckerDendropicos griseocephalusUEurylaimidae: Broadbills619596FFAfrican BroadbillSmithornis capensisKU620597FFRed-sided BroadbillSmitornis rufolateralisU621595FFAfrican Green BroadbillPseudocalyptomena graueriUPittidae: Pittas622598FFAfrican PittaPitta angolensisKU623599FFGreen-breasted PittaPitta reichenowiUHirundinidae: Swallow and martins656FFWhite-throated Blue SwallowHirundo nigritaU670639fWhite-headed Saw-wingPsalidoprocne albicepsKU672640fBlack Saw-wingPsalidoprocne holomelasKUMotacillidae: Wagtails, pipits and longclaws675994FGrey WagtailMotacilla cinereaKU676995FMountain WagtailMotacilla claraKU689984fTree PipitAnthus trivialisKU692983FFSokoke PipitAnthus sokokensisKPycnonotidae: Bulbuls698697FFCameroon Sombre GreenbulAndropadus curvirostrisKU699699FFLittle Grey GreenbulAndropadus gracilisKU700696FFAnsorge's GreenbulAndropadus ansorgeiK701705FLittle GreenbulAndropadus virensKU702701FYellow-whiskered GreenbulAndropadus latirostrisKU703698FFSlender-billed GreenbulAndropadus gracilirostrisKU704702FFShelley's GreenbulAndropadus masukuensisKU705704FFMountain GreenbulAndropadus nigricepsKU707703FFStripe-cheeked GreenbulAndropadus milanjensisK709721FGrey-olive GreenbulPhyllastrephus cerviniventrisK710719FFToro Olive GreenbulPhyllastrephus hypochlorisKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.711726FFSassi's Olive GreenbulPhyllastrephus lorenziU712723FFFischer's GreenbulPhyllastrephus fischeriK713727FFCabanis's GreenbulPhyllastrephus cabanisiKU714729fNorthern BrownbulPhyllastrephus strepitansKU715730FTerrestrial BrownbulPhyllastrephus terrestrisK716718FFWhite-throated GreenbulPhyllastrephus albigularisU717725FFIcterine GreenbulPhyllastrephus icterinusU718731FFXavier's GreenbulPhyllastrephus xavieriU719724FFYellow-streaked GreenbulPhyllastrephus flavostriatusKU720722FFTiny GreenbulPhyllastrephus debilisK721FLeaflovePyrrhurus scandensU722733FSwamp GreenbulThescelocichla leucopleuraU723706FFHoneyguide GreenbulBaeopogon indicatorKU724715FFSpotted GreenbulIxonotus guttatusU725711FJoyful GreenbulChlorocichla laetissimaKU726710FYellow-bellied GreenbulChlorocichla flaviventrisK727712FSimple GreenbulChlorocichla simplexU728709fYellow-throated LeafloveChlorocichla flavicollisKU729732fCommon BulbulPycnonotus barbatusKU730708FFRed-tailed BristlebillBleda syndactylaKU731707FFGreen-tailed BristlebillBleda eximiaU732713FFEastern Bearded GreenbulCriniger chloronotusU733714FFRed-tailed GreenbulCriniger calurusU734716FWestern NicatorNicator chlorisU735716FEastern NicatorNicator gularisK736717FFYellow-throated NicatorNicator vireoUTimaliidae: Babblers737671FFAfrican Hill BabblerPseudoalcippe abyssinicaKU748673FFCapuchin BabblerPhyllanthus atripennisU749672FFGrey-chested IlladopsisKakamega poliothoraxKU750675FFBrown IlladopsisIlladopsis fulvescensKU751676FFMountain IlladopsisIlladopsis pyrrhopteraKU752677FFPale-breasted IlladopsisIlladopsis rufipennisKU753674FFScaly-breasted IlladopsisIlladopsis albipectusKUFFPuvel's IlladopsisIlladopsis puveliUTurdidae: Thrushes and relatives756782FWhite-starred RobinPogonocichla stellataKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.758789FFForest RobinStiphrornis erythrothoraxKU760786FFLowland AkalatSheppardia cyornithopsisU761785FFEquatorial AkalatSheppardia aequatorialisKU763787FFEast Coast AkalatSheppardia gunningiK766761FFGrey-winged RobinSheppardia poliopteraKU767757FArcher's Robin-ChatCossypha archeriU769749fCape Robin ChatCossypha caffraKU770752FRed-capped Robin ChatCossypha natalensisKU771755FRüppell's Robin ChatCossypha semirufaK772751fWhite-browed Robin ChatCossypha heugliniKU773750FBlue-shouldered Robin ChatCossypha cyanocampterKU774753FSnowy-headed Robin ChatCossypha niveicapillaKU775754FFWhite-bellied Robin ChatCossyphicula robertiU776734FFFire-crested AletheAlethe diademataU777737FFRed-throated AletheAlethe poliophrysU778736FFBrown-chested AletheAlethe poliocephalaKU780773FFRed-tailed Ant ThrushNeocossyphus rufusKU781772FFWhite-tailed Ant ThrushNeocossyphus poensisKU787743fBrown-backed Scrub RobinCercotrichas hartlaubiKU788746fEastern Bearded Scrub RobinCercotrichas quadrivirgataK790745FFNorthern Bearded Scrub RobinCercotrichas leucostictaU812790FFRufous ThrushStizorhina fraseriU816793FOlive ThrushTurdus olivaceusKU817FFTaita ThrushTurdus (olivaceus) helleriK818801fAfrican ThrushTurdus peliosKU822795FFSpotted Ground ThrushZoothera guttataK823794FFBlack-eared Ground ThrushZoothera cameronensisU824FFGrey Ground ThrushZoothera princeiU825796FFOrange Ground ThrushZoothera gurneyiK826802FFAbyssinian Ground ThrushZoothera piaggiaeKU827803FFKivu Ground ThrushZoothera tanganjicaeU828800FFForest Ground ThrushZoothera oberlaenderiUMuscicapidae: Old World flycatchers831936FAfrican Dusky FlycatcherMuscicapa adustaKU832943FFChapin's FlycatcherMuscicapa lenduKU834939FCassin's Grey FlycatcherMuscicapa cassiniU835944FFYellow-footed FlycatcherMuscicapa sethsmithiUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.836938FAshy FlycatcherMuscicapa caerulescensKU837940FDusky Blue FlycatcherMuscicapa comitataU838926FFSooty FlycatcherMuscicapa fuliginosaU840933FWhite-eyed Slaty FlycatcherMelaenornis fischeriKU841932FYellow-eyed Black FlycatcherMelaenornis ardesiacaU847931FForest FlycatcherFraseria ocreataU850946fLead-coloured FlycatcherMyioparus plumbeusKU851942FFGrey-throated FlycatcherMyioparus griseigularisUSylviidae: Old World warblers869918fGarden WarblerSylvia borinKU870917FBlackcapSylvia atricapillaKU871907FWood WarblerPhylloscopus sibilatrixKU872904FChiffchaffPhylloscopus collybitaKU873908fWillow WarblerPhylloscopus trochilusKU874903FFUganda Woodland WarblerPhylloscopus budongoensisKU875905FFRed-faced Woodland WarblerPhylloscopus laetusU876909FBrown Woodland WarblerPhylloscopus umbrovirensKU877906FYellow-throated Woodland WarblerPhylloscopus ruficapillusK879889FGreen HyliaHylia prasinaKU883833FFEvergreen Forest WarblerBradypterus lopeziKU884835FCinnamon Bracken WarblerBradypterus cinnamomeusKU885831FBamboo WarblerBradypterus alfrediU886829FFBlack-faced Rufous WarblerBathmocercus rufusKU892844FMountain Yellow WarblerChloropeta similisKU898855FChubb's CisticolaCisticola chubbiKU899861FHunter's CisticolaCisticola hunteriKU924913fTawny-flanked PriniaPrinia subflavaKU926910FBanded PriniaPrinia bairdiiKU927911FWhite-chinned PriniaPrinia leucopogonKU933837fGrey-backed CamaropteraCamaroptera brachyuraKU934838FFOlive-green CamaropteraCamaroptera chloronotaKU935841FFYellow-browed CamaropteraCamaroptera superciliosusU936818fYellow-breasted ApalisApalis flavidaKU937815FFMasked ApalisApalis binotataU938815FFMontane Masked ApalisApalis personataU939823FFBlack-capped ApalisApalis nigricepsU940824FChestnut-throated ApalisApalis porphyrolaemaKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.942826FFBuff-throated ApalisApalis rufogularisKU945817FFGrey ApalisApalis cinereaKU946813FBrown-headed ApalisApalis alticolaK947821FFBlack-headed ApalisApalis melanocephalaK948819FFBlack-throated ApalisApalis jacksoniKU949816FFWhite-winged ApalisApalis chariessaK950825FBlack-collared ApalisApalis pulchraKU951827FFCollared ApalisApalis ruwenzoriiU952828FFBar-throated ApalisApalis thoracicaK956882FFGrauer's WarblerGraueria vittataU957875fGrey-capped WarblerEminia lepidaKU958895FFGrey LongbillMacrosphenus concolorU959896FFYellow LongbillMacrosphenus flavicansU960897FFKretschmer's LongbillMacrosphenus kretschmeriK961884FFShort-tailed WarblerHemitesia neumanniU967923FFWhite-browed CrombecSylvietta leucophrysKU968FFLemon-bellied CrombecSylvietta dentiU969924FGreen CrombecSylvietta virensKU972880FGreen-capped EremomelaEremomela scotopsKU974876FBrown-crowned EremomelaEremomela badicepsU975881FFTurner's EremomelaEremomela turneriKU979891FYellow-bellied HyliotaHyliota flavigasterKU980890FSouthern HyliotaHyliota australisKUZosteropidae: White-eyes9811131fAbyssinian White-eyeZosterops abyssinicusK9821132FMontane White-eyeZosterops poliogasterK9831133fYellow White-eyeZosterops senegalensisKUParidae: Tits987662FFStripe-breasted TitParus fasciiventerU988664FFDusky TitParus funereusKU989666fNorthern Black TitParus leucomelasKU990661fWhite-bellied TitParus albiventrisKU994668fAfrican Penduline TitAnthoscopus caroliKU995901FFTit-HyliaPholidornis rushiaeUMonarchidae: Monarch flycatchers997964FFLittle Yellow FlycatcherErythrocercus holochlorusK999966FFChestnut-capped FlycatcherErythrocercus mccalliUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.1000963fAfrican Blue FlycatcherElminia longicaudaKU1001962FWhite-tailed Blue FlycatcherElminia albicaudaU1002970FFWhite-tailed Crested FlycatcherTrochocercus albonotatusKU1003969FFWhite-bellied Crested FlycatcherTrochocercus albiventrisU1004971FFBlue-mantled Crested FlycatcherTrochocercus cyanomelasKU1005972FDusky Crested FlycatcherTrochocercus nigromitratusKU1006973FFBlue-headed Crested FlycatcherTrochocercus nitensU1007968fAfrican Paradise FlycatcherTerpsiphone viridisKU1008967FFRed-bellied Paradise FlycatcherTerpisphone rufiventerKUPlatysteiridae: Batises, wattle-eyes and relatives1009956FFAfrican Shrike-flycatcherBias flammulatusKU1010955fBlack-and-white FlycatcherBias musicusKU1011950FFForest BatisBatis mixtaK1012948FRuwenzori BatisBatis diopsU1014954FPale BatisBatis sororK1018FFIturi BatisBatis ituriensisU1019960fCommon Wattle-eyePlatysteira cyaneaKU1020961FBlack-throated Wattle-eyePlatysteira peltataKU1021958FFChestnut Wattle-eyeDyaphorophyia castaneaKU1022957FFJameson's Wattle-eyeDyaphorophyia jamesoniKU1023959FFYellow-bellied Wattle-eyeDyaphorophyia concretaKUPrionopidae: Helmet-Shrikes10241042FFRed-billed Helmet-ShrikePrionops canicepsU10271045fRetz's Helmet-ShrikePrionops retziiK10281046FChestnut-fronted Helmet-ShrikePrionops scopifronsKLaniidae: Shrikes10381035fMackinnon's FiscalLanius mackinnoniKUMalaconotidae: Bush-Shrikes10511013FBocage's Bush-ShrikeMalaconotus bocageiKU10521019fSulphur-breasted Bush-ShrikeMalaconotus sulfureopectusKU10531017FFBlack-fronted Bush-ShrikeMalaconotus nigrifronsK10541017FFMany-coloured Bush-ShrikeMalaconotus multicolorU10551015FDoherty's Bush-ShrikeMalconotus dohertyiKU10561018FFour-coloured Bush-ShrikeMalconotus quadricolorKOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.10571014FFFiery-breasted Bush-ShrikeMalaconotus cruentusU10581016FFLagden's Bush-ShrikeMalaconotus lagdeniU10631008FLühder's Bush-ShrikeLaniarius luehderiKU10641004fTropical BoubouLaniarius aethiopicusKU10681005FMontane Sooty BoubouLaniarius poensisU10691007FFSooty BoubouLaniarius leucorhynchusU10711000 FNorthern PuffbackDryoscopus gambensis KU1072999FBlack-backed PuffbackDryoscopus cublaK10731002FFRed-eyed PuffbackDryoscopus senegalensisU1075998FFPink-footed PuffbackDryoscopus angolensisKUCampephagidae: Cuckoo-shrikes1076688fBlack Cuckoo-shrikeCampephaga flavaKU1077690fRed-shouldered Cuckoo-shrikeCampephaga phoeniceaKU1078689FFPetit' s Cucko-shrikeCampephaga petitiKU1079691FFPurple-throated Cuckoo-shrikeCampephaga quiscalinaKU1080693FFGrey Cuckoo-shrikeCoracina caesiaKUDicruridae: Drongos1083644FVelvet-mantled DrongoDicrurus modestusKU1084645FSquare-tailed DrongoDicrurus ludwigiiKUOriolidae: Orioles1085651fEurasian Golden OrioleOriolus oriolusKU1086646fAfrican Golden OrioleOriolus auratusKU1087649fBlack-headed OrioleOriolus larvatusKU1088652FFMontane OrioleOriolus percivaliKU1089647FWestern Black-headed OrioleOriolus brachyrhynchusKU1090648FGreen-headed OrioleOriolus chlorocephalusK1091650FFBlack-winged OrioleOriolus nigripennisUSturnidae: Starlings and oxpeckers10991069FFNarrow-tailed StarlingPoeoptera lugubrisU11001070FFStuhlmann's StarlingPoeoptera stuhlmanniKU11011068FFKenrick's StarlingPoeoptera kenrickiK11021067FFWaller's StarlingOnychognathus walleriKU11031064fRed-winged StarlingOnychognathus morioKU11041063FFChestnut-winged StarlingOnychognathus fulgidusU11051066FSlender-billed StarlingOnychognathus tenuirostrisKU11071058FPurple-headed StarlingLamprotornis purpureicepsUOS-CBr.Cat. English name Scientific nameDist.11081057F Black-bellied StarlingLatnprotornis corruscusK11091061F Splendid StarlingLamprotornis splendidusKU11211048f Violet-backed StarlingCinnyricinclus leucogasterKU11221047FFAbbott's StarlingCinnyricinclus femoralisK11231049FFSharpe's StarlingCinnyricinclus sharpiiKUNectarinidae: Sunbirds11311081FFGrey-headed SunbirdAnthreptes fraseriU11321088FFPlain-backed SunbirdAnthreptes reichenowiK11341082f Western Violet-backed SunbirdAnthreptes longuemareiKU11361083FFUluguru Violet-backed SunbirdAnthreptes neglectusK11371085FFAmani SunbirdAnthreptes pallidigasterK11381087FFGreen SunbirdAnthreptes rectirostrisKU11401080FCollared SunbirdAnthreptes collarisKU11421121F Little Green SunbirdNectarinia seimundiU11431112FFOlive SunbirdNectarinia olivaceaKU11441129f Mouse-coloured SunbirdNectarinia veroxiiK11451090FFBlue-headed SunbirdNectarinia alinaeU11461130F Green-headed SunbirdNectarinia verticalisKU11471097FFBlue-throated Brown SunbirdNectarinia cyanolaemaU11481120F Green-throated SunbirdNectarinia rubescensKU11491091f Amethyst SunbirdNectarinia amethystinaKU11521128f Variable SunbirdNectarinia venustaKU11561094F Olive-bellied SunbirdNectarinia chloropygiaKU11571109F Tiny SunbirdNectarinia minullaU11581105F Greater Double-collared SunbirdNectarinia afraU11591115F Northern Double-collared SunbirdNectarinia preussiKU11611108F Eastern Double-collared SunbirdNectarinia mediocrisK11631118F Regal SunbirdNectarinia regiaU11661092f Purple-banded SunbirdNectarinia bifasciataKU11691093F Orange-tufted SunbirdNectarinia bouvieriKU11761096f Copper SunbirdNectarinia cupreaKU11771126f Tacazze SunbirdNectarinia tacazzeKU11781117F Purple-breasted SunbirdNectarinia bifasciataU11791103f Bronze SunbirdNectarinia kilimensisKUOS-CBr.Cat.English nameScientific nameDist.11801119fGolden-winged SunbirdNectarinia reichenowiKU11811099FMalachite SunbirdNectarinia famosaKU11831125FSuperb SunbirdNectarinia superbaKUPloceidae: Weavers and relatives12031134fGrosbeak WeaverAmblyospiza albifronsKU12041184fCompact WeaverPloceus superciliosusKU12051159fBaglafecht WeaverPloceus baglafechtKU12071179fSlender-billed WeaverPloceus pelzelniKU12091176fBlack-necked WeaverPloceus nigricollisKU12101177fSpectacled WeaverPloceus ocularisKU12111174FFBlack-billed WeaverPloceus melanogasterKU12121157FStrange WeaverPloceus alienusU12151158fOrange WeaverPloceus aurantiusKU12191164fNorthern Brown-throated WeaverPloceus castanopsKU12331175fVieillot's Black WeaverPloceus nigerrimusKU12341188FWeyn's WeaverPloceus weynsiU12351167FFClarke's WeaverPloceus golandiK12371186FFYellow-mantled WeaverPloceus tricolorKU12381156FFMaxwell's Black WeaverPloceus albinuchaU12391161FDark-backed WeaverPloceus bicolorKU12401169FFBrown-capped WeaverPloceus insignisKU12431154FBlue-billed MalimbeMalimbus nitensU12441153FCrested MalimbeMalimbus malimbicusU12451152FFCassin's MalimbeMalimbus cassiniU12461155FFRed-headed MalimbeMalimbus rubricollisKUEstrildidae: Waxbills12681252FFRed-fronted AntpeckerParmoptila woodhouseiU12691246FGrey-headed NegrofinchNigrita canicapillaKU12701248FPale-fronted NegrofinchNigrita luteifronsU12711245FFChestnut-breasted NegrofinchNigrita bicolorU12721247FWhite-breasted NegrofinchNigrita fusconotaKU12731243fWhite-collared OlivebackNesocharis ansorgeiU12741244fGrey-headed OlivebackNesocharis capistrataU12781223FRed-faced CrimsonwingCryptospiza reichenoviiU12791224FAbyssinian CrimsonwingCryptospiza salvadoriiKU12801222FDusky CrimsonwingCryptospiza jacksoniUOS-CBr.Cat. English name Scientific nameDist.12811225F Shelley's CrimsonwingCryptospiza shelleyiU12821254F Black-bellied SeedcrackerPyrenestes ostrinusU12841258FFGrant's BluebillSpermophagapoliogenysU12851259F Red-headed BluebillSpermophaga ruficapillaKU12861235F Peters' s TwinspotHypargos niveoguttatusK12871242FFGreen-backed TwinspotMandingoa nitidulaKU12881221f Brown TwinspotCtytospiza monteiriKU12901220f Dusky TwinspotEuschistospiza cinereovinaceaU12991229f Yellow-bellied WaxbillEstrilda quartiniaKU13041230f Black-crowned WaxbillEstrilda nonnulaKU13051227F Black-headed WaxbillEstrilda atricapillaKU13191265f Black-and-white MannikinLonchura bicolorKU13201267f Magpie MannikinLonchura fringilloidesKUFringillidae: Seed-eaters and canaries13321282f Yellow-crowned CanarySerinus canicollisKU13331283f African CitrilSerinus citrellinoidesKU13431292f Streaky Seed-eaterSerinus striolatusKU13441281FFThick-billed Seed-eaterSerinus burtoniKU13491279F Oriole-FinchLinurgus olivaceusKUOS-C, species number from OS-C (1996)Br., species number from Britton (1980)Cat. forest-dependence category: FF, specialist; F,generalist; f, visitorDist., distribution: K, Kenya, U, Uganda

Leon Bennun, Christine Dranzoa, and Derek Pomeroy "The Forest Birds of Kenya and Uganda," Journal of East African Natural History 85(1), (1 January 1996). https://doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(1996)85[23:TFBOKA]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 January 1996
JOURNAL ARTICLE
26 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top