An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between March and September 1997 in the northwestern and southern parts of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve using strip transects. Altogether 489 plant species from 107 families were recorded, most of them trees (37 %) and shrubs (27 %). Others were lianas, herbs, ferns and parasites. Endemic plants restricted to the Udzungwa Mountains and Eastern Arc endemic plants not restricted to the Udzungwas were present. It was established that local communities around the forest highly depend on the natural forests for forest products. Most human uses were for traditional medicine, fuelwood and building materials. Quality hardwoods Khaya anthotheca, Afzelia quanzensis, Milicia excelsa and Ocotea usambarensis were noted. To reduce the pressure on the natural forest, agroforestry is recommended in the area to meet some of the people's needs for forest products, thereby contributing to the conservation of biodiversity. It is also important to do more intensive surveys in the area and to document the valuable indigenous knowledge of useful plants.
BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES IN THE UDZUNGWA MOUNTAIN FORESTS, TANZANIA.1. ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY IN THE UZUNGWA SCARP FOREST RESERVEC.F. Shangali, C.K. Mabula & C. MmariTanzania Forestry Research Institute, Lushoto Silvicultural Research CentreP.O. Box 95, Lushoto, Tanzaniae.mail: email@example.comABSTRACTAn ethnobotanical survey was conducted between March and September 1997 in the northwestern and southern parts of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve using strip transects. Altogether 489 plant species from 107 families were recorded, most of them trees (37 %) and shrubs (27 %). Others were lianas, herbs, ferns and parasites. Endemic plants restricted to the Udzungwa Mountains and Eastern Arc endemic plants not restricted to the Udzungwas were present. It was established that local communities around the forest highly depend on the natural forests for forest products. Most human uses were for traditional medicine, fuelwood and building materials. Quality hardwoods Khaya anthotheca, Afzelia quanzensis, Milicia excelsa and Ocotea usambarensis were noted. To reduce the pressure on the natural forest, agroforestry is recommended in the area to meet some of the people's needs for forest products, thereby contributing to the conservation of biodiversity. It is also important to do more intensive surveys in the area and to document the valuable indigenous knowledge of useful plants.INTRODUCTIONThe Udzungwa Mountains within the Eastern Arc Mountains are famous for their high species diversity and endemism. The local people surrounding these unique forests rely on them for their livelihood and have a vast ethnobotanical knowledge that is not very well explored and documented. It is mainly the elderly who hold the greatest knowledge of using and maintaining forest resources and as they die, their inherited knowledge is being lost. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the norm-western and south-western parts of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve in March-April and September-October 1997, covering the rainy and dry seasons respectively. The purpose was to identify and document, in collaboration with indigenous ethnobotanists, useful plant species in the Forest Reserve.Kaale (1983) estimated that 91 % of energy used in Tanzania is based on firewood. Hedberg (1987) reported poisonous plants and potential medicinal plants in forests and expressed the need to document the vast indigenous knowledge contained in the minds of elderly people. Ruffo (1989) recorded some useful plants of the East Usambara Mountains, where he mentioned 17 uses and Ruffo et al. (1989) recorded 185 forest plants used to treat 63 different diseases. A recent survey in the West Usambaras revealed the unique richness of medicinal plants for livestock (Mwihomeke, 1994). Mmari & Mabula (1996) recorded 283 forest plants with various uses in Kiranzi-Kitunguru, Kitemela and Kawemba Forest Reserves within the Udzungwa Mountains.However, the Uluguru and Udzungwa Mountains are still poorly explored ethnobotanically. Rising rates of deforestation and degradation of biodiversity in the Eastern Arc forests are among the factors that pushed us to initiate this study. The aim was to rescue some of the rapidly disappearing indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge on biological resources in these forests. The study also tried to answer the following question about the reserve: What species are present, what are they used for by the local people, and what is their conservation status?History of the study areaBefore the colonial period, the areas surrounding the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve and the present reserved areas were covered by thick and extensive forests. Although some agricultural activities were carried out and the people were living within forest areas, there was no severe impact on the forest resources, and people lived more in harmony with the environment (Chami, 1994; Mmari & Mabula, 1996). Traditional values of the forest focussed on the management of natural ecosystems and the maintenance of the forest to meet their own needs.During the colonial period (1891-1960), conflicts between forest conservation regulations and villagers' use of forest resources became pronounced. Indigenous conservation methods were overlooked by colonial administrators, who issued land for the establishment of large agricultural estates to colonial masters and established forest reserves for timber and watershed protection. 'Natives' were forced into marginal unproductive lands. Poor forest management, and a lack of alternative income-generating activities led to intensified forest exploitation for fuelwood, building and weaving materials, timber, medicinal plants, animals and encroachment for agriculture. This trend led to a depletion of the forest resources and their destruction. Tibaijuka (1993), Mung'ong'o (1991) and Hunter (1992) call this "the period of over-exploitation of the forest resources".After independence many people were moved from their scattered homesteads to concentrated settlements. Populations grew, resulting in increased population pressures and increased demand for food crops, thus leading to further encroachment of the natural forest for agricultural activities.MATERIALS AND METHODSSite descriptionUzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve is in the Udzungwa Mountains in southern central Tanzania at 35°50' to 36°05' E and 8°10' to 8°37' S (figures 1 & 2). The reserve covers an area of 19,384 ha and is located over a series of isolated hills with steep slopes on the eastern side, facing the Kilombero Valley.There are various streams that flow from the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve. The western streams feed the Great Ruaha River, while the steep eastern scarp streams flow to the Kilombero River. The rivers provide water for irrigation and the generation of hydroelectric power.The ethnic group in the area is Wahehe. They depend almost solely on agriculture with some animal husbandry. The principal crops cultivated on the western side of the Reserve include maize, millet and Irish and sweet potatoes, while on the southern part in Mufindi District maize and rice are cultivated. Domestic animals include dogs used for hunting, goats, pigs and rarely cows. Woodlots established near homesteads are planted with Pinus spp, Cupressus spp and Acacia meamsii. Occasionally Eucalyptus grandis, Grevillea robusta and Acacia melanoxylon are planted as windbreaks. Fruit trees such as Prunus persica, Persea americana, plums and pears are found on some farms in Iringa District. Natural forest tracts exist in some villages and are respected for their use in ritual activities. The forest tracts are also potential areas for medicinal plants and other forest products. Main species in the forest tracts are Parinari excelsa (Msaula), Macaranga kilimandscharica (Mpalala), Ficus spp (Mtsombe) and Albizia spp (Mwitsa).Figure 1. Map of the Udzungwa Mountain forests showing the location of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve.Rodgers & Homewood (1982), Lovett (1992), Chami (1994) and Fjeldså (1999) have described ecology of the Udzungwa Mountains. Udzungwa soils like other Eastern Arc forest soils are basically fertile sandy loams due to the build-up of nutrients from litter decomposition and protection from erosion and excessive leaching. Extensive areas of bare rocks covered with lithophytes also occur in the area.Rainfall in the area is unimodal in pattern, starting from November with peak in April and ending in June. The climate is influenced by the November-May Southeast monsoon winds. High altitudes above 1,600 m a.s.l. receive more rain than the lower slopes. Rainfallin the area ranges from 1,800 to 2,000 mm per year (Rodgers & Homewood, 1982) or sometimes to over 3,000 mm per year in wetter areas (Lovett, 1992).Figure 2. Location of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve and the villages represented in the study.MethodsA literature survey was conducted at the Iringa Hifadhi Mazingira (HIMA) Project Office and the Regional Natural Resources Office. Topographic maps were used to locate the area and villages. Villages bordering the Forest Reserve were represented in the study by local informers who accompanied the research crew to the forest. Some villagers were interviewed. Transects 7.5 m wide were established at the forest border from represented villages to the forest. The villages studied include Ilutila, Iluti, Idegenda, Mbawi, Masisiwe, Kitemela, Ihimbo, and Uhafiwa (figure 2).A plotless strip sampling method was used with the assumption that the species are randomly distributed in the forest. The transects were placed running across the contours and along footpaths. Forest borders, hill tops and riverbanks were considered independently even if they lay outside the transects.Altitude was recorded at the start of the transect and after every 100 m. All species occurring on the transects and on the areas of special interest were identified by their botanical and local names and their uses were recorded. Plant specimens were collected, pressed and taken to Lushoto Silviculture Research Centre Herbarium for further identification. Some were sent to the Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew) for further studies.Quadrats of 60 × 7.5 m were placed on transects for forest structure determination. All trees in the quadrats with diameter at breast height greater than 4.8 cm were noted and their rooting position recorded. Total height, crown height and crown projection area were measured and recorded. Tree regeneration in the gaps and in the forest was also estimated.Interviews were initially conducted in the villages regarding the local names and use of plants. Later interviews were conducted at the same time as the botanical survey to facilitate documentation of ethnobotanical information, proper identification of plant species and cross checking of other information. While in the forest the local informers provided information on the uses of the forest plants.FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONPlant speciesAltogether 489 plant species representing 107 families were recorded and identified from the western and southern parts of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve. Of the species identified 37 % were trees, 27 % shrubs, 16 % herbs and 10 % lianas. The others were creepers, ferns and grasses. Parasitic and sedge plants were also recorded (figure 3). The most common families were Rubiaceae (12 % of species), Compositae (6 %), Euphorbiaceae (5 %) and Papilionaceae (5 %). Mmari & Mabula (1996) obtained similar results in a botanical survey conducted in Kawemba, Kitemela and Kiranzi-Kitunguru Forest Reserves in the Udzungwas. The Kihansi area was noted to be rich in plant species, possibly due to the moist microclimatic conditions supporting different vegetation types to those represented in the rest of the area. On the other hand, Masisiwe was observed to be poor in plant species (figure 4). Most tree species were fairly abundant in the reserve except Prunus africana, Ocotea usambarensis and Rapanea sp., which are threatened in the area. This may be due to their extraction for timber. Only one sapling of Ocotea usambarensis was noted, although scattered big trees are reported to be present near the scarp in the east. Species restricted to the Udzungwa Mountains such as Ixora scheffleri and Alsodeiopsis schumannii were also recorded. Species restricted to the Eastern Arc forests like Allanblackia stuhlmannii, A. ulugurensis, Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Cryptocarya libertiana and Sabecea orientalis were also recorded. Other species recorded include high quality hardwood species like Afzelia quanzensis and Milicia excelsa.Vegetation typesFive vegetation types are presented in the Forest Reserve:1) Miombo woodlands at Kihansi at an altitude of 150-300 m a.s.l. The miombo woodland has a low and often broken canopy 10-15 metres high. Dominant tree species are Brachystegia spp, Afzelia spp, Sterculia quinqueloba, Annona spp, Uapaca kirkiana and U. nitida. Bryophytes are almost absent.2) Lowland evergreen rain forest along the Kihansi River at an altitude of 300-800 m a.s.l. The tree canopy is 15-25 m high along streams and river valleys, with emergents reaching 25-30 m. In disturbed areas, especially where Milicia excelsa has been extracted, dense thickets occur. The trees include Afzelia quanzensis, Anthocleista spp, Funtumia sp., Garcinia buchananii, Khaya anthotheca, Malacantha sp., Milicia excelsa, Newtonia buchananii and Sterculia sp.Figure 3. Distribution of plant species by growth habits in the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve.Figure 4. Number of plant species in the transects in the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve.3) Submontane rain forest at 700-1,400 m altitude, which has higher diversity of tree species and taller trees than those of other vegetation types. This forest type is dominated by Allanblackia stuhlmannii, A. ulugurensis, Syzygium guineense, Englerophyton natalensis, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Ixora scheffleri and Newtonia buchananii. Other trees include Macaranga kilimandscharica, Albizia gummifera and Bridelia micrantha. The trees are 10-25 m high, with dominant trees reaching 20-25 m in other parts, and further north they are up to 50 m. The canopy is discontinuous.4) Montane rain forest at 1,400-1,800 m altitude, occupying large areas in the Reserve. Trees are not as tall as in the submontane forest and the forest is rich in shrubs and undergrowth. Common tree species are Allanblackia spp, Parinari excelsa, Albizia gummifera, Agauria salicifolia, Aphloia theiformis and Macaranga kilimandscharica. Tree ferns (Cyathea manniana) are common.5) Mountain bamboo forest occurs in the northwestern part of the Reserve, being the dominant vegetation near Masisiwe and Mbawi villages. The dominant species is Arundinaria alpina. The canopy is about 10 m high and the forest has very poor undergrowth. However, the bamboo zone changes abruptly to mature forest near the scarp.Gap dynamicsSeveral gaps of various sizes from about half up to two hectares were observed in the forest area. The gaps apparently originate from hunters' and honey collectors' activities and timber harvesting. Some wild animals, especially elephants, were considered to be abundant in the past when they may have affected the forest gap formation and maintenance (see Kasenene, 1984; Nummelin, 1990; Struhsaker et al., 1996). Some gaps are a result of previous settlements and encroachment. Pioneer species, such as Macaranga kilimandscharica, Albizia gummifera, Polyscias fulva and Anthocleista grandiflora have established themselves in these open gaps. These species occur in a scattered manner leaving most of the ground layer in the gap covered by herbaceous plants. Herbaceous plants like Pteridium sp., Brillantaisia madagascariensis and B. ulugurica cover the gaps in the western part. In the southern part gaps were covered by grasses. Medicinal and food plants like Mangifera indica, Carica papaya, Ricinus communis and Piper sp. are also present.RegenerationMacaranga kilimandscharica, Albizia gummifera and Polyscias fulva were regenerating poorly in the gaps. Reasons for the absence of regeneration are not known. An absence of seed-producing mother trees, heavy undergrowth and thick litter may have contributed the failure of the seeds. Outside the gaps, in the closed forest, regeneration was abundant for Parinari excelsa, Syzygium spp, Myrianthus arboreus, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Albizia gummifera, and Bersama abyssinica. Only a few regenerating Phoenix reclinata, Canthium spp, Zanthoxylum spp, Ochna holstii, Myrica salicifolia and Cassipourea malasana were recorded. In some species, such as Rapanea sp., Milicia excelsa and Ocotea usambarensis, regeneration is sparse, if not absent.Plant usesThirty-seven forest plant uses were recorded from the area (appendix). To simplify the many uses, twelve main uses were chosen for discussion (table 1). The most important uses were medicines, fuelwood, building materials and timber. Others include honey production, food, weaving material, fishing gear, fodder and material for utensils (figure 5).Indigenous technologyThe local people living close to the western and southern boarder of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve benefit from the species richness in the reserve. This survey revealed that the people collect materials from the Forest Reserve for construction of houses using indigenous technology. Poles, withies, ropes and plants for thatching are used for construction. Almost the only source of energy is fuelwood. The use of charcoal and kerosene stoves is limited and electricity is not available. Equipment like mortars and pestles, beehives, spears, bows and arrows, musical instruments and furniture are manufactured locally by specialists in indigenous technological skills.Figure 5. Distribution of plant species by uses in Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve.Table 1. Forest plant uses in Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve.Main useUsesEdible productsVegetables, fruits, local brew and thirst conquerorTimberHigh quality and low quality timberFodderFor domestic animals and wild animalsHoney productionConstructing beehives and harvesting honeyBuilding materialsPoles, withies, ropes and thatchingFuelFuelwood and charcoalMedicinalTreatment diseases, treatment of bewitchment, prophylaxis for diseases, bewitchment, poisons and ritualsUtensilsHandles (weapons, tools, equipment), mortar (pestles) and domestic utensilsWeaponsBows and arrowsFishingTraps, poison and canoesWeavingFibres (basket, mat, winnowing containers), bamboo for tenga basketsOrnamentalGardens and hedgesOthersBirdlime, balls, dye and rain indicatorsTraditional practicesThe use of medicinal plants by the indigenous people is a practice common in most of Tanzania's rural communities. In the western and southern side of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve plants are also used for medicinal purposes. Bark, roots and leaves as well as whole plants are used to produce various forms of medicines that cure disease. Most often more than two plant species (sometimes more than ten) are mixed to cure a specific disease. Thirty percent of the plant species recorded in the study area were medicinal plants. Traditional practitioners and herbalists depend on the forest plants for practising their art. Ihimbo and Uhafiwa villages have traditional practitioners who kill thieves by using plants and superstition. This practice has created faith in the area and food produce is left in the fields with assured security. Erythrina abyssinica and Parinari excelsa are considered as sacred trees and are found in sites with old cemeteries and places for traditional rituals. Indigenous taxonomic knowledge used to identify species variability is essential as herbalists use smell, touching and tasting techniques. In all cases herbalists, traditional practitioners, as well as witch-doctors hand over their art to particular son or daughter from father or mother respectively. This knowledge is inherited specifically in a clan and nowadays the youth regard this practice as out of date. Hedberg (1987) also noted that propagation of this technology is limited as it is done through oral tradition. This also makes the study of plant uses difficult.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSUzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve has many potentially useful forest plants that need to be explored and documented urgently. This urgency is due to the fact that the knowledge is almost solely with elderly people who may pass away with their uninherited and undocumented knowledge. The same is true in other Eastern Arc Mountains forests. Some of the plant species are rare, endemic and threatened and thus in need of protection and conservation measures.In order to achieve conservation of the biological resources, sustainable productivity of the soils, and water protection, the following recommendations are made:1) The natural forest tracts that are traditionally conserved forest areas of the villages should be protected and their status should be improved through identification, surveying and enrichment planting by preferred indigenous tree species.2) Enrichment planting in gaps in the natural forest caused by encroachment, old settlements and exploitation of forest products in the past should also be considered. Indigenous tree species from the same habitat are recommended.3) Indigenous conservation methods should be considered for integration with the formal methods; it is anticipated that this will be effective in the conservation of the natural forest as they are accepted and practised at farmers' level.4) Agroforestry practices using preferred indigenous tree species with food crops in the farmlands, planting of woodlots around homesteads, and establishment of village woodlots should also be encouraged in the areas around the natural forests.5) Boundary resurveying should be done and boundaries planted with trees such as Eucalyptus grandis and Casuarina spp, which will later form a permanent boundary.6) Since the local communities neighbouring the forest have been custodians of the resource for a long time and have been depending on it for their livelihood, it is recommended that local people should be granted more responsibility for conserving the forest.7) Local people should be considered when sharing benefits derived from the forest.8) Local people should be considered for employment as forest guards to work in collaboration with the foresters and as guides on surveys and ecotourism.9) To secure improved management it is important to conduct more intensive surveys in the area to explore and document the precious ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional conservation measures.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSSpecial thanks go to the Finnish Support for Forestry Research in Tanzania (FORST) Project for financing the study, TAFORI management for the support and releasing us to do the study. We thank Dr Matti Nummelin for the efforts he made for this study to be successfully accomplished and Ms Mirja Ruokonen for commenting on the manuscript. We would like to thank all the local informers, especially Mr Yuda Kingunge, Mr Jobu Mwituly, Mr Tobias Msofi, Mr Luinuko Ngahungwa, Mr Atanas Kichwelu and Mr Leonas Kanika without whom the results could not have been achieved. Our sincere thanks are also extended to the Village Heads in all villages we visited for their co-operation. We are grateful to HIMA Office for allowing us to stay at their Field Centre and the access to many reports on the Udzungwa Mountains. Our gratitude goes to the Iringa District Natural Resources Officer, Mr Malango, District Forest Officer, Mr Mchomvu, TAFORI Head of Sao Hill Research Centre, Mr Kachwele, Mr Karumuna Johansen of Water Department, Iringa, Mr D. Ruffo, Kihansi Falls Hydroelectric Power Project Management. We would also like to thank all those who assisted us after the motor accident leading to the death of Ms Mmari which befell us during the field survey. Last but not least we thank Lushoto Silviculture Research Centre and all TAFORI staff for their various efforts and comments when writing this report.REFERENCESChami, F. (1994). The Tanzanian Coast in the First Millennium AD an Archaeology of the Iron Working, Farming Communities. PhD thesis. University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.Fjeldså, J. (1999). The impact of human forest disturbance on the endemic avifauna of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 9: 7-62.Hedberg, I. (1987). Research on medicinal and poisonous plants of the tropics: Past, present and future. Convenor's introduction to Symposium, International Bot. Congress, Berlin. In Medicinal and Poisonous plants of the tropics. Pudoc, Wageningen. Pp. 9-15.Hunter, J.P. (1992). Promoting sustainable land management. Problems and experience in the SADCC Region. Splash 8: 20.Kaale, B.K. (1983). Tanzania Five Year National Village Afforestation Plan 1982,83-1986,87. Forest Department, Dar-es-Salaam.Kasenene, J.M. (1984). The influence of selective logging on rodent populations and the regeneration of selected tree species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Tropical Ecology 25: 179-195.Lovett, J. (1992). Udzungwa Forest Management Project Vol. I. Main Report of the Project Preparation Mission Team. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.Mmari, C. & C. Mabula (1996). A botanical survey in Kawemba, Kitemela and Kiranzi-Kitunguru Forest Reserves, Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. A Consultant Report to Hifadhi Mazingira (HIMA), Iringa, Tanzania.Mwihomeke, S. (1994). A survey of traditional medicinal plants for livestock in West Usambara Mountains. TAFORI, Lushoto Silviculture Research Centre, Tanzania.Mung'ong'o, C. (1991). Social ecological processes and land question in the Kondoa Hills, Tanzania. Ambio 20: 362-365Nummelin, M. (1990). Relative habitat use of duikers, bush pigs, and elephants in virgin and logged forests in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Tropical Zoology 2: 111-120.Rodgers, W.A. & K.M. Homewood (1982). Biological values and conservation prospects for the forest primate populations of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 24: 285-304.Ruffo, C.K. (1989). Some useful plants of the East Usambaras. In A.C. Hamilton & R. Bensted-Smith (eds), Forest Conservation the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. Pp 185-193.Ruffo, C.K., I. Mwasha. & C. Mmari (1989). East Usambara. In A.C. Hamilton & R. Bensted-Smith (eds), Forest Conservation the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. Pp 194-206Struhsaker, T.T., J.S. Lwanga & J.M. Kasenene (1996). Elephants, selective logging, and forest regeneration in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12: 45-64.Tibaijuka, A. (1993). Environmental conservation: reflections on current policy issues in Tanzania. IDRC Currents No. 4.APPENDIX. Plant species recorded from Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve under their respective families including their local names, growth habit and uses.BOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESACANTHACEAEAsystasia gangetica (L.) T. AndersLuisaShrubBrillantaisia madagascariensis LindauLihuiniShrubB. nyanzarum BurkillHerbB. ulugurica LindauLihuiniShrubCrossandra triadentata LindauHerbHypoestes verticillaris R. Br.ShrubHypoestes sp.KalamataHerbFodderJusticia anisophylla (Mildbr.) BrummittMwikoseShrubJ. anglerana (Lindau) C.B.LivavataShrubJ. glandulosa LindauLihambwiShrubFodderJ. interupta (Lindau) C.B.VivinganyalafiShrubJ. nyassana LindauKalamataHerbFodderJ. pseudrungia LindauKihunganyawalafiHerbJ. unicinulata Oliv.HerbJusticia sp.TulilafunoHerbJusticia sp.KadangadangaHerbVegetableJusticia sp.LifugeHerbVegetableMellera lobulata S. MooreLihambwiliShrubMomulopsis glandulosa (Lindl.) BullockLihambwiShrubMedicinalPseudoranthemum campylosiphon Mildbr.IlinganyalafiShrubP. hilderbrandtii (L) C.B.ShrubSclerochiton boivinii C.B.CI.MsebeleShrubSclerochiton holstii (Lindau) C.B.CIMkinamsituShrubThunbergia alata Boj.KihugilaClimberRopesStraurogyne spHerbT. petersiana LindanMwikoseShrubT. usambarica LindanLindelendeleClimberThunbergia spMwamburaClimberMedicinalThunbergia spKitoyalaHerbADIANTHACEAECheilanthes bergiana KunzeMfululusiFernPallaea longipilosa Bonap.FernBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESPteris cretica LFernAGAVACEAEDracaena afromontana Mildbr.KidetemaShrubFodderD. laxissima Engl.Mvalambi/KidetemaShrubToothbrushD. steudneri Engl.MbeleweleSmall treeFodderD. usambarensis Engl.IdetemaSmall tree, shrubFodderSanseviera spKichembuligaHerbALANGIACEAEAlangium chinense (Lour.) HarmsMhengemelaTreeTimber, polesALOACEAEAloe laterita Engl.LitemboHerbIron smiths, wound healingAMARANTHACEAEAchyranthes aspera L.Kimatamata, LiguhukanukaHerbAerva lanata (L.) Juss.LinyaliHerbCelosia schweinfurthiana Schinz.LihuiniShrubCyathula uncinulata (Shrad) Schinz.LilamataClimberMedicinalPupalia lappacea (L.) JussLimsingiClimberMedicinalAMARYLLIDACAEACrinum politifolium WahlstMlelevasiHerbMedicinalANACARDIACEAELannea schimperi (A.Rich.) Engl.Luguvani, MpugupuguTreeHandlesLannea spIsunguShrubRhus longipes Engl.KubanulaluShrubMedicinal, edible fruitsRhus vulgaris MeikleKitunubiShrubPoles, edible, fruitsSorindeia madagascariensis DC.Mpilipili, Mhulo, TundawasaTreeFuel, Poles, fruits, toolhandlesTrichoscypha ulugurensis Mildbr. ssp ulugurensisMbembanigo, Lukumbwembwe/M pilipiliTreeToolhandles, fuel, poles,ANNONACEAEAnnona senegalensis Pers.MtopetaTreeFuelwood, handlesGreenwayodendron suaveolens (Engl.&Diels) Verd.LihomeloTreePoles, fuelwoodIsolona heinsenii Engl.MkalanganyambwiTreeMedicinal, polesMonanthotaxis buchananii (Engl) Verde.LiveleveleTreePoles, withies, fuelwoodMonodora grandidieri Baill.MkwalaShrubPoles, toolhandlesMonodora sp.NyalubanoShrubMedicinalUvaria scheffleri Diels.MbokovokoClimberMedicinalU. tanzaniae Verdc.MbokovokoClimberUvaria sp..MvyokovyokoShrubUvariodendron goigonis VerdcTreeU. oligocarpum Verdk.Msasati, MhangamaTreeTimberU. pyconophyllums (Diels) R.E.Fries.MlindimilaTreePoles, withies, fuelwoodBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESXylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.RichKipulula, MsasatiTreeX. parviflora (A.Rich) BenthLihomeloTreePoles, fuelwoodANTHERICAEAEChlorophytum filipendulum Berk.Mlelevati/Nyalumbw embweHerbAPOCYNACEAEAncylobothrys petersiana (KC) PierreClimberCarvalhoa campanulata K. Schum.KiteluteluShrubDiplorhynchus condylocorpon (Muel. Arg.) PichonMtogoTreeMedicinalHolarrhena pubescens (Buch Ham) G.Don.MkolongoShrubMedicinalLandlovia buchananii Stapf.LumongaClimberRopesOncinotis lanceolata Gilg.MlungamoClimberMedicinalRauvolfia mannii Stapf.Nyavihongo ndogoShrubMedicinalR. mombassana Stapf.NyavihongoShrubMedicinalR. volkensii (Schum.) Stapf.NyavihongoShrubMedicinalSaba comorensis (Bojer) PichonMgapaClimberFruits, medicinalSchizozygia coffaeoides Baill.KiteluteluShrubToolhandlesTabemaemontana pachysiphon Stapf.MkongozaTreeMedicinalVoacanga africana Stapf.MlowolowoTreeMedicinalARACEAECulcasia scandens (Willd.) P. Beauv.LukikiHerbCulcasia orientalis MayoMbalawinoHerbARALIACEAECussonia spicata Thunb.Mnyonzi, MunyunzuluTreeMedicinalPolyscias fulva (Hiern) HarmsMdekeTreeTimber, poles, fuelwoodSchefflera barteri (Seems.) HarmsLikagataClimberMedicinal, ropesARISTOLACHIACEAEAristolachia elegans Mast.LandaladopeClimberRopes, busketsASCLEPIADACEAEAscepidaceae genus novLupalakangaClimberMedicinalMarsdenia abyssinica (Hoschst) Schlecht.MwendiClimberSecamone sp.Nyamtita/LwamtitaClimberRopesSecamone sp.Kihugwe, KihugilaClimberRopesASPLENIACEAEAsplenium elliottii C.H.WrightMsalatusiFernA. holstii HieronMigungumatiFernBALSAMINACEAEImpatiens ehlersii SchweinfurthHerbOrnamentalI. hamata Warb.MinwuwiHerbOrnamentalI. irvingii Vel.HerbOrnamentalI. meruensis Gilg.MinwuwiHerbOrnamentalI. walleriana Hook. f.HerbOrnamentalBASELLACEAEBasella alba LBelengaHerbVegetableBEGONIACEAEBegonia meyeri-johannis Engl.MtsimutsimuShrubMedicinalB. sutherlndii Hook.f.HerbOrnamentalBegonia sp.HerbOrnamentalBERBERIDIACEAEBerberis holstii Engl.KimakatsaShrubMedicinal, dyeBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESBIGNONACEAEMarkamia lutea (Berth.) K.Schum.LuguwaniTreeHandles, fuelwoodM. oblusifolia (Bak.) SprangueLukunyani, KipagupaguTreeHandles, fuelwoodStereospemum kuthanium Cham.MkongonangedengeTreePoles, fuelwoodTechomaria capensis (Thumb.) ssp nyassae (Oliv.) BrummittKinyalomo, MnunuShrubMedicinal, fuelwoodBOMBACEAEBombax rhodognaphalon K.SchumKavyolovyoloTreeBeehivesBURSERACEAECommiphora eminii Engl.TreeBRYACEAEBryium huilensis Weiw et Bub.MossCAESALPINIACEAEAfzelia quanzensis Welw.Mwale, MbambakofiTreeTimber, poles, fuelwoodBauhinia petersiana BolleMsengeraTreeFuelwood, poles, medicinalBrachystegia microphylla Harms.MsaniTreeFuelwood, charcoal, timberBrachystegia spiciformis Benth.MyomboTreeFuelwood, poles, rope, timberCassia kirkii LLuweletsiShrubDialium holtzii HarmsMkongoTreeFuelwoodErythrophleum suaveoleus (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan.MkunguguTreeFuelwood, pestle, handlesLysidice rhodostegia Hance.MpinatiTreePoles, fuelwood, toolhandlesCARICACEAECylicomorpha parvifolia UrbanMvolvoloTreeBee hivesCARYOPHYLLACEAEDrymaria cordata (L.) Wild ex R & LKipande, BapalaHerbMedicinalCELASTRACEAEMystroxylon aethiopicum (Thunb) Loes.MhomeloShrubUtensilsMaytenus senegalensis (Lam) ExellMbondo, KisugiShrubM. undata (Thunb.) BlakelockMhomeloShrubFuelwood, utensilsLoesieneriella apocynoides (Oliv.) J. RaynalKinyongoClimberLocal door makingSimirestis goetzei (Loes.) R. WilczakLikinyongoClimberCHYSOBALANCEAEHirtella megacarpa R.GrahamTreeFuelwoodParinari curatellifolia (Planch) Benth.MsaulaTreeEdible fruits, fuelwoodP. excelsa SabeneMsaulaTreeTimber, fuelwood, fruits, bridgesCOMBRETACEAECombretum apiculata Sond.MlamaTreeFuelwood, poles, charcoalC. molle G.Don.KalamaTreePoles, fuelwood, charcoalBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESC. zeyheri Sond.MlamaTreePestles, charcoal, fuelwood, polesCombretum spMfufugalaTreeTerminalia sambesiana Engl. & DielsMkundikwavaTreeTimber, poles, fuelwoodCOMMELINACEAEAneilema aequinoctiale (Beauv) Kunth.NgiholawogaHerbCommelina africana L.NgulumbwembweHerbC. banghalensis L.NgolowogaHerbFodderC. laftfolia A.Rich.NgolowogaHerbFodderPollia condensata C.B.ClMlelevasiHerbCOMPOSITAEAgeratum conyzoides LMzunguzunguHerbAnisopappus oliveranus Wild.HerbAspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild.KisengelawahinzaHerbBlumea aurita (L) WightShrubBidens holstii (O.Hoffm.) Sherff.Libangwi, MbangweShrubMedicinalB. pilosa L.MbangalalaHerbMedicinalBerkheya echnacea O. Hoffm.NamgohaHerbChrysanthemoides monilifera (L) Nort.ShrubConyza floribunda (H.B.K.) Sch. Bip.Mnung'anung'aShrubC. persicalfolia (Benth.) Oliv. & HiernMbalikilaShrubEmilia sagitata DC.SungaHerbMedicinalGerbera abyssinica Sch. BipHerbGutanbergia polycephala Oliv. & Hiern.HerbHelichrysum foetidum (L.) Cass.LinusiHerbMedicinalH. odoratissimum (L.) LessNyawibalaHerbMedicinalH. schimperi (Sch.Bip.ex A.Rich.) MoeserMfufugala, LibundaCreeperMedicinalLaggera alato (D.Don.) Oliv.NamgohaHerbLaunea comuta (Oliv. & Hiern) C.JeffreySungaHerbVegetable, medicinalMicroglossa densiflora Hook. F.KalumbwegilaShrubMedicinalPluchea monocephala E.A.BruceMpoliotoHerbSenecio stolzii MattfieldLitembuligaHerbMedicinalSenecio spNgelulilaHerbSolanensio angulatus (Vahl) C.JeffreyKibulumaClimberMedicinalS. mannii (Hook. f) C.JeffreyTambulalivyovyoHerbMedicinalSphaeranthus suaveolens D.C.LikegetaHerbVernonia abbotiana O.Hoffn.KipwagaHerbV. amygdalina Delile.Tugutu, IbahaShrubMedicinalV. anthelmitica (L) Wild.MgongoHerbV. cinerea (L) LessMbalikilaHerbMedicinalV. glabra (Steetz) VatkeNamgohaShrubMedicinalV. lasiopus O. Hoffm.LibahaShrubV. myriantha Hook. fTugutu/ MtugutuShrubMedicinal, pollen for honeyV. usambarensis O.Hoffm.LipasaHerbCONNARACEAEAgalaea heterophyla Gilg.Kinyavalafi, NyakatituClimberMedicinalByrsocarpus boivinianus (Bail) SchellKitongolo, KanyawalafiShrubUtensils, medicinalB. orientalis (Baill) Bak.KinyavalafiClimberBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESCONVOLVULACEAEIpomea involucrata Beaiuv.LukegetaClimberCRASULACEAEKalanchoe crenata (Andrew) HawLopolopoloHerbMedicinalCUCUBITACEAEMomordica anigosantha Hook. f.KinyanumtaClimberMedicinalM. foetida Schumach. & Thunn.LisonyiClimberMedicinalMomodica spLisonyuClimberMedicinalCYPERACEAECarex echinochloe KuntzeLipopomaSedgeThatchingCyperus ajax C.B.CI.LinyamalatiSedgeThatchingC. distans L.Mwahatsa, HaalaSedgeThatchingKyllinga erecta Schumach.SedgeThatchingMariscus umbelatus Vahl.SedgeThatchingCYATHEACEAECyathea manniana Hook.LihehaTree fernPoles, medicinalDAVALIACEAENephrolepis biserrata (Swartz.) Schott.MtsululusiFernDENNSTAEDIACEAEBlotiela natalensis (Hook) TryonMfulukikiFernPteridium spLisilo, MasululusiFernDIPSACACEAECephalaris spHerbEBENACEAEDiospyros usambarensis F.WhiteNyakatituTreeFuelwood, dyeD. whyteana (Hiern) F.WhiteMsisina, NyakatituTreeTimber, fuelwood, medicinalD. zombensis (B L.Burth) F.WhiteNyakatituTreeFuelwood, medicinalERICACEAEAgauria salicifolia (Lam.) Oliv.MkolongoTreeMedicinal, poles, fuelwoodEUPHORBIACEAEAcalypha chirindica S, Moor.KililafunoShrubA. fructosa ForskKitegeroShrubFishtrapsA. ornata A.Rich.Kivaaga, SugulutiShrubMedicinalAntidesma membranaceum Muell.LikandekandeTreePoles, fuelwood, medicinalBridelia carthartica Bartol. f.IheyeroTreeMedicinal, poles, fuelwoodB. micrantha (Hochst) BaillMwitsa, Mpalang'ang'aTreeMedicinal, fuelwood, dye, beehives, timberClutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach var. pedicellaris (Pax) PaxKipwagaShrubC. paxia KnaufShrubDrypetes natalensis (Harv.) Hutch.MputsaTreePoles, fuelwoodErythrococa usambarica PrainMumbereShrubErythrococa sp.MwefiShrubEuphorbia hirta L.HerbE. usambarica Pax.KingavalamiHerbBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESMacaranga kilimandscharica Pax.MpalalaTreeTimber, poles, fuelwood, beehives, medicinalMargaritaria discoidea (Baill.) Webster.KiheyeroShrubFuel, poles, medicinalM. discoidea (Baill.) Webster var. fragifolia (Pax.) A.R.Sm.MnepaShrubFuel, MedicinalNeobotonia macrocalyx PaxMheweTreeFuelwoodPhyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn.KambulikweoShrubMedicinalP. fischeri Pax.Kinyang'anyaShrubP. leucanthus Pax.KimbilinkweyoShrubMedicinalP. leucocalyx Hutch.ShrubP. reticulatus Poir.KigohomolaShrubMedicinalPhyllanthus sp.KitogoloShrubPoles, fuelwoodPhyllanthus sp Pseudolachnostylis maproneifolia (Pax. var. maproneifolia Pax.Kinyavalafi MsoloShrub TreeMedicinal Medicinal, fuelwoodSapium ellipticum (Krauss) Pax.MkwembiTreeFuelwoodSuregada procera (Prain.) Croizat.MkangafuTreeFuelwoodUapaca kirkiana Muell.MguhuTreeFruits, beehives, poles, fuelwoodU. nitida Muell. Arg.MtotoTreeFruits, beehives, poles, charcoal, fuelwoodFLACOURTIACEAEAphloia theiformis (Vaht) BennMpumuTreePoles, fuelwood, medicinal utensilsCasearia battiscombei R.E.FriesMpeeta, MleluleluTreeTimber, poles, fuelwoodColoncoba welwitchii Oliv.Mguoguo, KisegichielaTreePoles, fuelwoodDasylepis integra Warb.MvinditiTreePoles, pestles,Flacourtia indica (Burm f.) MerrillMgogola, MpingipingiSmall treePestles, fruits, fuelwoodKiggelaria africana L.MgukukanzuaTreeTimber, polesLindackeria sp.MkokoTreeHandles, spear handles fuel, polesLudia mauritiana GmelinKajiweTreePoles, fuelwood, wedgesRawsonia lucida Harv. &SondMvalambiTreeFuelwoodScolopia rhamniphylla Gilg.MpingipingiShrubMedicinal, fruitsTrimeria grandflora (Hochst) WarbSmall treeGRAMINAEArudinaria alpina K. Schum.Mdenge, MsisiBambooPoles, weaving, thatchingHyparrhenia collina (Pilg.) Stapf.LipeleleGrassFodder, thatchingIsachne mautiana Kunth.LukuvataGrassThatch, fodderBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESMiscanthus violaceus (K.Schum.) Pilg.FaluguguGrassFodder, thatchOxytheanthera abyssinica (A.Rich.) MunroLilanziBambooPoles, local brew, utensilsPanicum maximum Jacq.GrassThatchingP. trichocladum K.Schum.LugoyaGrassThatching, fodderPennicetum polystachyon (L.) SchultMpembamlusiGrassThatching, fodderP. unicetum (Nees) Benth.LipopomaGrassThatchingPhragmites mauritianus Kunth.MateteGrassMedicinal, weaving, thatchingSetaria megaphylla (Stend) Th. Dur & SchizSwakaiaswakalaGrassThatchingSetaria spKokowoGrassThatchingGLEICHENIACEAEDicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) UnderwFernGUTIFERACEAEAllanblackia stuhlmanii (Engl.) Engl.Mlomboti, MkaniTreePoles, timber, fruits for animalsA. ulugurensis Engl.Mkani, MsengeraTreeFuelwood, poles, Medicinal, timberGarcinia buchananii BakerMdumaTreeWithies, fruitG. huillensis Oliv.Mfilafila, MkatsaTreeTimber, fuelwood,Harungana madagascariensis Poir.Mbalala, KisyembadandaTreeGlue, dyes, fuelwoodHarungana spMvavataTreeFuelwood, poles, medicinal, timberHypericum peplifolium A.Rich.CreeperHALORAXGIDACEAEGunnera persensa L.KinyilimbiHerbHAMAMELIDACEAETrichocladus ellipticus Eckl. & Zeyh.TreeFuelwoodHYPOXIDACEAEHypoxis urceolata Nel.HerbICACINACEAEAlsodeiopsis schumannii (Engl.) Engl.Small tree, shrubFuelwood, polesIRIDACEAEAristea alata BakerHerbCrocosmia aurea PlanchHerbIXONANTHACEAEPhyllocosmus lemaireanus (De Wild &Th Dur.) Th. & H.Dur.KitagataTreePoles, fuelwoodLABIATAEAchyrospermum canvalhi GurkeLyamkalichumaShrubBecium capitatum (Bak.) AgnewHerbColeus luteus (Gurke) StanerMbosobosoShrubGeniosporum rotundifolium Briq.HerbHoslundia opposita Vahl.KinunganungaHerbMedicinalLeucas deflexa Hook, f.Kihomonula, NgelengasaHerbMedicinalL. martinscinsis R. Br.HerbBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESLeonotis mollisma Guerke.NgingelengasaShrubMedicinalOcimum suave Willd.Kinung'anung'aShrubMedicinalPlectranchus spLufufuHerbMedicinalPycnostachys meyeri GuerkeShrubMedicinalSolenostemon sylvaticus (Gurke) AgnewLibosobosoCreeperMedicinal.LAURACEAECryptocarya liebertiana Engl.Mwitsukulu, MhuloTreeTimber, fuelwoodCryptocarpa spNgulukanzila, MmemonaTreeTimber, beehives, fuelwoodOcotea usambarensis Engl.MhetiTreeTimber, fuelwood, medicinalLILIACEAEAsparagus africanus LamLipalakangaShrubMedicinalA. asiatica L.LipalakangaShrubA. asparagoides (L.) WightMgombagombaShrubA. buchananii Bak.PalakangaShrubA. sateceus (Kunth) JessopPalakangaClimberGlorilosa simplex L.NyamuluiHerbLOBELIACEAELobelia giberroa Hemsl.Libongobongo, LihaleHerbMedicinalLobelia holstii Engl.Luisa kubwaHerbMedicinalLOGANIACEAEAnthoclesta grandiflora GilgMumbalaTreeMedicinal, fish poison, timberBuddleia salviifolia (L) LamMuhahasaShrubFuelwoodMostuea brunonis Didr.Lufyeki/KawisasaShrubMedicinalNuxia congesta FresenTreeFuelwoodN. floribunda Benth.MkogoTreeFuelwood, polesStrychnos angolensis Gilg.LubondalafunoShrubWithies, polesS. mitis S.MooreShrubS. scheffleri Gilg & BusseKibangwiClimberS. spinosa Lam.MungulunguluShrubMedicinal, fuelwood, fruitsLORANTHACEAEAgelanthus sansibarensis (Engl.) Polh. & WiensUlimbo, NgurkiraParasiteMedicinal, birdlimeEnglerina woodfordioides Schweinf.UlimboParasiteBirdlimeLoranthus spUlimboParasiteBirdlimeLYCOPODIACEAELycopodium cermum L.LubakysahomiFernMattresesL. clavatum L.LubakysabatamuFernMattressesMALVACEAEHibiscus diversifolia JacqMhangana, linyangamabereShrubMedicinal, ropesH. fuscus Garcke.LufufuShrubMedicinalPavonia patens Chiov.LukoleShrubP. urens Cav.LukoleShrubRopesPavonia spMlegehiClimberRopesMARANTTIACEAEMarattia fraxinea Sm. ex J. F. GmelFernBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESMELASTOMATACEAECalvoa orientalis TaubMtsengelahinzaShrubDissotis bussei Engl.NegastuvaShrubD. rotundifolia (Sm.) TrianaMwiniHerbDissotis spNegichwaShrubMedicinalMelastomastrum capitatum (Vahl.) A.R.FernandesShrubMemecylon verruculosum BrenanShrubTristemma maritianum J.F.Gmel.KifumbilamatingoShrubMedicinal, edible fruitsMELIACEAEKhaya anthotheca (Welw) C.DC.MkangaziTreeTimber, fuelwoodLepidotrichilia volkensii (Gurke) LeroyMufangaSmall treeFuelwoodTrichilia emetica Vahl.MlindimitaTreeFuelwoodTurraea holstii GuerkeMhamamala/KihamamalaTreeBuilding, medicinal, fuelwoodMELLIANTHACEAEBersama abyssinica Fres.Mbatsamono, MpemeTreeMedicinal, fuelwood, timberMENISPERMACEAECissampelos mucronata A. Rich.NandaropeClimberRopesStephania abyssinica (Dill &A.Rich) Walp.KaswanaClimberTiliacora funifera (Miers) Oliv.PululaClimberMedicinalMIMOSACEAEAcacia shweinfurthii Benan ex ExelKitonaClimberAlbizia glaberrima (Schumach &Thonn.) Benth.MbegesyaTreeFuelwood, poles, canoes, mortarsA. gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm.MtangaTreeHandles, mortars, poles, beehives, medicinal, timberA. petersiana (Bolle) Oliv.MgomaTreeMedicinal-snakebiteEntanda abyssinica (Stevd.) A.Rich.MhulodonyaTreeFuelwood, rain indicatorNewtonia buchananii (Baker) Gilg. & Bout.MgongoTreeTimber, canoes, fuelwoodMONIMIACEAEXymolos monospora (Harv.) Baill.MkombamwikoTreeFuelwood, handles, utensilsMORACEAEDorstenia orientalis De WildMfilafilaShrubDorstenia spLingu'ng'uHerbFicus altissima BlumeMdambaTreeF. cyathistipula WarbMdambaTreeF. exasperata Vahl.Mshasha/KivulugoTreeSandpaper, polesF. ingens (Miq.) Miq.MtambaTreeRain indicator, edibleF. ottonifolia (Miq.) Miq.MdambaTreeRain indicator, fruitsBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESF. scassellatii Pump. ssp scassellatiiMdambaTreeBirdlimeF. sur Forssk.Mtsombe, mkuyuTreeMedicinal, mortars, fuelwoodF. sycomorus L.MkuyuTreeMortarsF. thoningii Bl.MdambaTreeMedicinalF. vallis-choudae Del.,MzombeTreeMortars, medicinalMilicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C.Berg.MvuleTreeTimber, canoes, medicinalMyrianthus arboreus P. Beauv.MpuitsaTreeFruits, fuelwood, polesM. holstii Engl.Mvavalambi, kwaritiTreePoles, fuelwoodTrilepsium madagascariense DCMkwetaTreeFuelwood, polesMYRICACEAEMyrica humilis Cham & Schltdl.Mdaiza/ MwefiTreePoles, fuelwod, medicinalMYRISTICACEAECephalosphaera usambarensis (Warb) Warb.MtugutsaTreePoles, fuelwood, bridgesMYRSINACEAEEmbelia schimperi Vatke,Mnyaninyani, MhanyiClimberMedicinalMaesa lanceolata Forsk.KigutiTreeMedicinalMyrsine africana L.LufyogoShrubMedicinalMyrsine melanophloeos (L.) R.Br.TreeTimber, medicinalMYRTACEAESyzygium cordatum Hochst. ex KiauseMvenge, MlalambeTreeTimber, poles, fuelwood, fruitsS. guineense (Willd.) DC.MvengeTreeTimber, poles, fruits, fuelwoodSyzygium sp.Mvenge mdogoSmall treeMedicinalOCHNACEAEOchna holstii Engl.Mkwaliti, MvalambeSmall treeMedicinal, poles, fuelwood, pestleO. mossambicensis Klotzcsch.LulangaladukaSmall treeFuelwood, polesOLACACEAEStrombosia scheffleri Engl.Mkongotsa, MhanganaTreemedicinal, fuelwood, poles, timberStrombosia sp.MhuloTreePoles, withiesXimenia caffra Sond.MpingipingiShrubEdible fruits, medicinalOLEACEAEJasminum flumenense Vell.Kihaagadume, LukanyakatsegeShrubMedicinal, ornamentalOlea capensis L.Mgiwe, MhagatiTreeTimber, fuelwood, polesO. europea L. ssp africana (Mill.) P.S. GreenMgiwe, MhagatiTreeTimber, fuelwood, polesBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESSchrebera alata (Hochst) Welw.Lukombamwiko, MhongolaTreeFuelwood, utencils, rafters, medicinalS. trichoclada Welw.KivambadumaTreePoles, fuelwoodOLINIACEAEOlinia rechetiana A.JussMliandegeTreeFuelwood, poles, medicinalORCHIDACEAEAerangis coriaceae Summerhayes.OrchidA. luteoalba (Kraenz.) Schlt.OrchidAnsellia africana Lindl.OrchidCalantha sylvatica (Thon) Lindl..OrchidDispells anthoceros Reichb. f.LikenyangubiOrchidEulophia sp.MkumburuOrchidPolystachya tesellata LindleyMdetemaOrchidMedicinal, ornamentalPolystachya sp.KikoluwogaOrchidMedicinal, ornamentalOSMUNDACEAEOsmunda regalis L.MfululusiTerestrial fernOXALIDACEAEOxali corymbosa DC.HerbPALMAEBorassus aethiopicum Mart.MkochiTreeThatch, local brewPhoenix reclinata Jacq.Ngoeta, makwetaTree (palm)Weaving, thatching, ropes, polesRaphia famifera (Gaertner) H. HylanderMwivaleTree palmWeaving, ropes, thatching polesPAPILIONACEAEAbrus precatorius L.KalendiClimberMedicinalAdenocarpus mannii (Hook. f.) Hook. f.NzelenyululuShrubFodderArgyolobium sp.ShrubCrotalaria natalitia Meissn.ShrubMedicinalDalbergia boehnii Taub. ssp boehniiMgunguTreeMedicinalD. boehnii Taub. ssp stuhlmanii (Taub.) PolhillMbegesyaTreeFuel, poles, mortalsD. lactea VatkeMgunguClimberMedicinal, ropesD. nitidula Bak.MlungulunguSmall TreePoles, pestle, medicinalDesmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC.ViselenyululuCreeperMedicinalDolichos spKinyawalafiClimberEriosema buchananii Bak. f.KinyawagangaHerbMedicinalE. ellipticum Welw. ex Bak.KifilafilaShrubMedicinalE. scioanum AvettaHerbErythrina abyssinica DC.MheniTreeMedicinalFlemingia grahamiana Wight. & Arn.KisufiShrubFodderI ndigofera emarginella Stend. ex A.Rich.KigihomolaShrubI. hedyantha Eckl. & Zeyh.ShrubI. longibarbata Engl.HerbBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESI. viscidissima Bak ssp orientalis GillettShrubI. vohemarensis Bail.ItongaHerbKotschya uguenensis (Taub.) F.WhiteShrubLonchocarpus bussei HarmsKisindaupapiTreeMacrotyloma axillare (E. Mey.) Verdc.LingangaliCreeperMillettia bussei HarmsMkungugu, LihafuTreePesttle, fuel toolhandlesM. dura Dunn.MhafeTreeHoney, pestle, fuelwood, polesMucuna pruriens (L.) DC.LikeseleClimberPericopsis angolensis (Bak.) Van Meeuwen.MwangaTreeFuelwood, canoesPseudarthria hookeri Wight & Am.MbaliTreeFodderPterocarpus angolensis DC.MningaTreeTimber, medicinalP. tinctoris Welw.MnyingamajiTreeTimberRhynchosia hirta (Andr.) Meikle.& Verdc.LivambalasimbaClimberTephrosia aequilata Bak.ShrubVigna sp.KipandeClimberMedicinalXeroderris stuhlmannii (Taub) Mendonca & E.P SousaMubeghesaTreePoles, mortars, fuelwoodPASSIFLORACEAEAdenia cissampelos (Planch) HarmsLogolomosiClimberMedicinalBasanantha sp.IgolomosiClimberRopesPassiflora sp.Limbore , kikwepeleClimberFruitsPIPERACEAEPiper capensis L. f.Kundukundu, LudahaShrubFruits, spice, medicinalP. umbellutum L.Litundilambwa, ludahaShrubMedicinalPITTOSPORACEAEPittosporum lynessii Cuf.TreePOLYGALACEAEPolygala gomesiana Welw ex. Oliv.ShrubP. sphenoptera FresenKinyangololaHerbMedicinalP. virginata Thunb. Polygala sp nr kilimanjarica Chill.KinyangolomaHerbMedicinalPOLYGONACEAEPolygonum salicifolium Brous ex. Wild.HerbPolygonum sp.LinyoloCreeperFodderRumex abyssinicus Jacq.LipembapembaHerbDye, medicinalPOLYPODIACEAEDrynaria laurentii (Christ.) Hieron.FernLoxogramme lanceolata (Swartz.) C. PreslFernPhymatodes scolopendria (Burm. f.) ChingFernPleopeltis macrocarpa (Willd.) & Kauf.FernOrnamentalPROTEACEAEFaurea saligna HarvMhenyiTreeBeehives, charcoal, honey, fuelwood, polesBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESRANUNCLUACEAEClematis brachiata Thunb.KalichumaClimberMedicinalClematis simensis Frez.Mwiva, KinyanguliClimberMedicinalRanunuclus sp.HerbThalictrum rhynchocarpum Dillone & A.Rich.KisisiHerbMedicinalRHAMNACEAEGouania longispicata Engl.ClimberRhamnus prinoides L. Herit.LikamandaShrubMedicinalScutia myritina (Burm. f.) Kutz.KidasiSmall treeRHIZOPHORACEAECassipourea gummiflua Tul.MsengeraTreePoles, fuelwoodC. malasana (Bak) Alston.MsengeraTreeTimber, poles, withiesROSACEAEPrunus africana (Hook. f.) KalkmanMwiluti, MuvangaTreeTimber, poles, pestlesRubus apetalus PoirMwifaShrubFruitsRubus sp.MdasiShrubFruits, medicinalRUBIACEAEBertiera pauloi Verdc.MuwawataShrubFuewoodCathium oligocarpum Hiern ssp captum (Bullock) BridsonMhamamala, MhamangambakwaTreeFuelwood, polesCatunaregum spinosa (Thunb.) Tirvengadum ssp spinosaTutumoShrubMedicinal, fuelwoodChassalia parvifolia K.Schum.Kivalika, KiteluteluShrub dPoles, fuelwoodCremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K.Schum.LikongoShrubMedicinal, fuelwood, poles, pestleCoffea sp nr C. eugenioides S.MooreLukongogosiShrubWithies, local doorsFadogia triphylla Bak.KihulanzunyaShrubMedicinalGardenia temifolia K.Schumach.MwanamasaeTreePoles, fuelwoodGeophila obvallata SchumacMatigahuhuHerbMedicinalHymenodictyon floribundum (Hoschst & Stend.) B.L.RobynsonMbandabandaTreeFuelwoodIxora scheffleri K.Schum & K. KraussSmall tree/ShrubKeetia venosa (Oliv.) BridsonKomangambakwaClimberLagynias pallidiflora BullockMhamamalaTreeFuelwood, poles, withiesLasianthus sp.MchengaShrubMedicinal, fuelwoodLeptactina platyphylla (Hiern) Wernh.MvavataShrubWithies, poles, fuelwoodMultidentia crassa (Hiern) Bridson & Verdc.MwanamasaeTreePoles, fuelwoodM. fanshwei (Tennant) BridsonMdegedegeTreeMedicinalMussaenda arcuata PoirNdokoriShrubFuelwood, polesOldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb.CreeperOxyanthus speciosus DC. ssp stemocarpus (K.Schum) BridsonMnug'anung'aTreeTimber, poles, fuelwood, medicinalBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESOxyanthus sp.MpwagaShrubWithiesPauridiantha paucinervis (Hiem) Bremek. ssp holstii (K.Schum.) Verdc.Lupwaga, MsengeraSmall treePoles, fuelwoodPavetta abyssinica Fres.ShrubP. hymnephylla Bremek.ShrubP. manyanguensis BridsonLyabondoShrubPoles, fuelPavetta schumanniana K. Schum.IdetemaShrubPavetta stenosepala K.SchumShrubPentas hindsioides K.SchumMshengapahaShrubP. schimperana (A.Rich.)Vatke.ShrubP. zanzibarica (Klotzsch.) Vatke.Kalilafuno, VimungumunguHerbPsydrax parviflora (Afzel.) Bridson.MvavataTreeWithies, poles, fuelwoodPsychotria alsophila K.SchumMshengaShrubFuelwoodP. cyathicalyx Petit.ShrubPsychotria fractnervata PetitP. goetzei (K..Schum) PetitMmemenangolo, MmemenaShrubWithiesP. lauracea (K.Schum.) PetitIteruteruShrubFuelwood, polesP. leucopoda PetitKiteruteruShrubP. megalocarpus Verdc.ShrubPsychotria sp.KikongwaTreePoles, fuelwoodPsychotria sp.MpwagaShrubFuelwoodRichardia scrabra L.MatigahuhuHerbPoles, fuel-wood, fruits for monkeysRothmannia manganjae (Hiern)RobynsMkogo, msamataTreeR. urcelliformis (Hiern.) Keay.MdongadongaTreePoles, fuelwoodRubia cordifolia L.LusisyeClimberMedicinalRutidea fuscencens Hiern.LupebetaShrubR. orientalis BridsonMkalangaClimberMedicinalRytigynia bagshawei (S.Moore)RobinsLinyavikokoShrubR. bugoyensis (K.Krause) Verdc.Mkukuma, KipululaShrubR. celastroides (Baiil.) Verdc.MgunguShrubR. uhliigii (K.Schum & Krause)Verdc.LinyavihokoShrubR. xanthotricha (K.Schum) Verdc.KihomangambakuShrubMedicinalRytigynia sp.LifagataShrubSabicea orientalis Wernham.ClimberSericanthe odoratissima (K.Schum.) Robbrecht.KitambulapwagaShrubPoles fuelwood, withiesSpemacose priceae (K.Schum.) Verde.Linyauzuba, matigahuhuClimberMedicinalTarenna pavettoides (Harve) Sim.NyamsituShrubWithies, fuelwoodTricalysia acocantheroides K.Schum.LukogeShrubPoles, withies, fuelwoodT. bangshwei S.Moore.MkangafuShrubT. gilchristii BrenanMwahatsaTreePoles, withies, fuelwoodT. pallens Hiern.Likong'ogose, nyamsituShrubFuelwood, poles, withies & pestlesBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESTricalysia sp.LikombenigoTreePoles, pestleUncaria africana G.Don.MgombandumbiliClimberVangueria infausta Burch.MsadaSmall treeMedicinal, fruits, fuelwoodVangueria volkensii K.Schum.KibambadumaSmall treeFruits, poles, fuelwoodVirectaria major (K. Schum.) Verdc.CreeperRUTACEAEClausena anisata (Willd) Benth.Mnung'anung'aShrubMedicinalToddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.Mtanula , kitonaShrubMedicinalVepris lanceolata (Lam) G.Don.MgangaTreeHandles, withies fuelwood,V. morogorensis (Kokw.)MzirayKamgangaTreeFuelwoodV. nobilis (Delile)MkusiSmall treePestles polesV. trichocarpa (Engl.) MzirayLupebetaSmall treePolesZanthophylum deremens (Engl.) Kokw.Mlungulungu, MhangalasiTreeTimberZ. gillettii (De Wild.) Waterm.MlungulunguTreeTimber, medicinalZanthoxylum sp.LutonaClimberMedicinalSAPINDACEAEAllophylus abyssinicus (Hochst) Radlk.MnyakisagiTreeTimber, medicinalA. africanus P.Beauv.Kwalevale, kibeghesa, segelavahinzaShrubA. calophyllus Gilg.LihenyeroShrubPoles, withies, fuelwoodA. congolanus Gilg.KisiasiaShrubA. chaunostachys Gilg.ShrubA. ferrugineus Taub.KitagatiShrubBlighia unijugata BakerMkongowaTreeFuel, polesChytranthus obliquinervis Engl.ShrubDeinbolia borbonica Scheff.MkongowaShrubMedicinalD. kilimandscharica Taub.MnyalaTreeTimber, poles, fuelwoodDodonea viscosa Jacq. L.F.LuhaniShrubFuelwood, withiesFilicum decipiens (Wight & Am.) ThwaitesMkongoSmall treeFuelwood, polesPaullinia pinnata L.MkyalikyumaClimberZahna africana (Radlk.) Exell.KasumbaTreePoles, fuelwood, medicinalSAPOTACEAEChrysophylum gorungosanum Engl.MlembelembeaTreeTimber, poles, fuelwoodEnglerephyton natalensis (Sond) PenningtonMkeleleTreePoles, fuelwood, withies, pestle, fruitsManinkara sp.LikumburuTreePoles fuelwoodMimusopsis kumel A.DC.MlembelembeTreeFuelwoodPouteria alnifolia (Baker) RobertyMhetiTreePoles, timberSynsepalum cerasiferum (Welw.) PenningtonMluatiTreeFuelwoodSynsepalum msolo (Engl.) PenningtonMkumburuTreeFuelwood, poles, fruitsSCROPHULARIACEAAlectra sessiliflora (Vahl) O. KunzeHerbBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESHalleria lucida L.Mhunuka/MhukaShrubMedicinal, fruitsLindernia brevidens Skan.HerbSelago thomsonii RolfeHerbSELAGINELLACEAESellaginella abyssinica SpringFernS. kraussiana (Kunze) A.Braun.FernSIMAROUBACEAEHarrisonia abyssinica Oliv.KihangalasiShrubPoles, medicinalSOLANACEAEDatura arborea L.MpweleleShrubPhysalis periviana L.LibotsoCreeperMedicinal, fruitsSolarium aculeatisimum Jacq.MdasiShrubMedicinalS. anguivi Lam.NdwandulaShrubS. bifurcatum A.Rich.Kimwaga, LubondwaShrubMedicinalS. goetzii DammerShrubMedicinalS. indicum L.LigulukahunaShrubSMILACACEAESmilax anceps Willd.NyaziliClimberS. kraussiana MeisnMkwangasale, Mdasi, MgwabiClimberMedicinalSTECULIACEAECola greenwayi Bren.Luganga, MwangaSmall treePolesC. scheffleri K.Schum.MgaiyaTreeFuelwoodC. usambarensis Engl.MtwatwaTreePoles, fuelwoodCola spMkokoTree,Poles fuelwoodDombeya burgessiae HarveMtowo /MkiuSmall treePoles, honey, fuelwoodLeptonychia usambarensis K.Schum.KandekandeShrubPoles, fuelwood, medicinalLeptonychia sp. Steculia quinquelobaMpugupuguTreeFuelwoodTHELYPERIDIACEAEChristella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & JermyMfululusiFernCyclosorus dentatus (Forssk) Ching.LisululusiFernThelypteris confluens (Thunb.) MortonMfululusifernTHYMELACEAEDicranolepsis usambarica Gilg.KinyavalafiShrubPeddiea fisheri Engl.Mkusi, Ngalulenga, MhagavaSmall treeRopes, fuel polesP. subcordata DomkeKipululaShrubRopes, medicinalSynaptolepis kirkii Oliv.KatambalangwenziShrubRopesTILIACEAEGrewia sp.ShrubTriumfetta annua L .ShrubT. cordifolia G&P.ShrubT. rhomboidea Jacq.MtumanzukiShrubRopesT. tomatosa Boj.MbundunguluShrubRopesULMALACEAETrema orientalis (L.) Bl. fuelwoodMbefu, MbetiTreeMedicinal,UMBELIFERAEHeteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Echl & ZeyhNyatomaShrubMedicinalBOTANICAL NAMELOCAL NAMEGROWTH HABITLOCAL USESSteganotaenia araliacea Hochst.LinyekenyekeTreeURTICACEAEBoehmeria macrophyla HornemLugeniShrubDroguetia iners (Forssk) Schweinf.CreeperPilea usambarensis Engl.HerbProcris crenata C. RobinsonNdelemaHerbMedicinalUrera hypselodendron Wedd.ClimberVERBENACEAECleredendron cephalathum Oliv.PambadumeShrubMedicinalC. formicarium GuerkeNgaleleulaShrubMedicinalC. pleiosciadium Guerke.MpaliotoShrubMedicinalLippia plicata Bak.ChihongoleShrubMedicinal, sweeping brushLippia javanica (Burm. f.) Spreng.LuhongoleShrubMedicinalPremna schelibenii Werd.LipejehoTreeStarting fire, fuelwood, polesVitex amaniensis Pieper, Mpoma/MkogoTreeTimber fuelwoodV. doniana Sweet.Mpwanga/MkogeTreeTimber, fruits, honey, fuelwoodV. madiensis Oliv.MpomaTreeFuelwood, withiesV. stricken Vatke & Hildebr. KibambadumaTreeFuelwood, withiesVIOLACEAERinorea orientalis Engl.Lamvyombo, mbondoShrubFuelwoodRinorea spNyakiguniSmall treeVISCACEAEViscum sp.UlimboParasiteBirdlimeVITACEAECyphostema hildebrandtii (Gilg) Willd & Drum.LikenyangubiClimberMedicinalCyphostema sp.MwekekeClimberCissus rotindufolia (Forsk.) Vahl.ClimberC. olivera (Engl.) Gilg.LilegehiClimberThirst conquererLeea guineense G. DonMkalichumaShrubRhoisissus tridentata (L. f.) Wild & Drum.ToganigoClimberPoisonZINGIBERACEAEAfromonium angustifolia K.Schum.MbwembweHerbMedicinalCostus sarmentosus Boj.MatweweHerbLanealmia engleri K.Schum.MatweliHerbEdible fruitsErrors remaining in this appendix are theresponsibility of the author.