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1 January 2003 Annotated Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Kenya (excluding the lacustrine haplochromines from Lake Victoria)
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Abstract

A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Kenya is presented. Pending more accurate information on their status, the lacustrine Lake Victoria haplochromines have been omitted from the list. Currently 206 species belonging to 38 families are known from Kenyan fresh waters. With at least 50 species, Cyprinidae are by far the largest fish family in the country followed by Cichlidae, Mochokidae, Mormyridae and Characidae, respectively represented by 28, 15, 15 and 12 species. At least 18 fish species were introduced, deliberately or after escaping from fish farms or breeding stations. The list includes the distribution of each species in Kenya, common English names and local names in various African indigenous languages as well as annotations referring to introductions, distribution, taxonomic status of the species and older records from literature.

ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE FRESHWATER FISHES OF KENYA (excluding the lacustrine haplochromines from Lake Victoria)Lothar SeegersHubertusweg, 11, D 46535 Dinslaken, GermanyL.Seegers@t-online.deLuc De Vos⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩National Museums of Kenya, Department of IchthyologyP.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, KenyaAfrica Museum Tervuren, Vertebrate SectionB-3080 Tervuren, BelgiumDaniel O. OkeyoUniversity of Fort HarePrivate Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.dokeyo@ufh.ac.zaABSTRACTA checklist of the freshwater fishes of Kenya is presented. Pending more accurate information on their status, the lacustrine Lake Victoria haplochromines have been omitted from the list. Currently 206 species belonging to 38 families are known from Kenyan fresh waters. With at least 50 species, Cyprinidae are by far the largest fish family in the country followed by Cichlidae, Mochokidae, Mormyridae and Characidae, respectively represented by 28, 15, 15 and 12 species. At least 18 fish species were introduced, deliberately or after escaping from fish farms or breeding stations. The list includes the distribution of each species in Kenya, common English names and local names in various African indigenous languages as well as annotations referring to introductions, distribution, taxonomic status of the species and older records from literature.INTRODUCTIONThis annotated checklist provides an updated overview of the currently known freshwater fish species of Kenya. It also includes several coastal and estuarine fish species that have been found in fresh or brackish waters in the lower reaches of eastward flowing rivers. Some of these marine species may even breed in freshwater. It is likely that more coastal and estuarine fish species will be recorded in the future, since many of these areas are currently poorly explored. Some potential additions include a few cartilaginous species [e.g. the bullshark (Carcharinidae) and the small tooth sawfish (Pristidae)] and representatives of snake eels (Ophichthidae), gobiids (Gobiidae), flagtails (Kuhliidae), grunters (Haemulidae), scats (Scatophagidae), moonies (Monodactylidae) and seabreams (Sparidae).⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩ Dr. Luc De Vos sadly and suddenly passed away in June 2003.This annotated checklist is mainly based on reference collections of Kenyan fishes housed in various natural history museums: Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universität, Berlin; Zoologisches Institut und Museum der Universität, Hamburg; the Natural History Museum, London; the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris; Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren. The FishBase website, (http://www.fishbase.org/search.cfm) already lists the majority of Kenyan material housed in several of these museums. Lists of museum material from Kenya can be obtained from the first author upon request. In a few cases species are listed, based on reliable records from the literature or from local fishermen. The checklist is particularly useful for fish biologists, fisheries officers and land and water-use managers of the catchment area.The need for an updated annotated checklist is evident: the only previously published checklist on freshwater fish of Kenya by Copley (1941) is incomplete, outdated and uses antiquated or erroneous nomenclature. For example, the haplochromines reported in Copley's list do not necessarily occur in Kenyan waters. Copley (1941) lists fish species, which at that time were described from Lake Victoria and which were not verified per se to occur in Kenyan waters of the lake. Additional records on Kenyan freshwater fishes by Copley (1952; 1958), Whitehead (1959; 1960), Mann (1966; 1968) and Campbell et al. (1986) are also incomplete, outdated or sometimes doubtful. Those records therefore need critical examination.More recently, Skelton (1994) published a species list of the coastal rivers, Tana and Galana, and Okeyo (1998) published one on Athi-Galana-Sabaki. Both lists, however, are incomplete and often inaccurate. A national checklist of freshwater fishes of Kenya, appearing in FishBase 2000 (Froese & Pauly, 2000) is merely based on data from the literature and is also often inaccurate. For example, the 320 Kenyan freshwater fish species recorded in FishBase 2000 include more than 110 Lake Victoria haplochromines. This number is taken from a simple listing of all Lake Victoria Haplochromis reported by Van Oijen et al. (1991). Given that only six percent (6%) of Lake Victoria lies in Kenya and bearing in mind that not all the haplochromines have a lake-wide distribution, there is little doubt that the list of fishes of Kenya in FishBase 2000 is too extensive for this group. So far, only a limited number of haplochromine species have been reported from Kenyan waters and reliable records of other species are scarce. The haplochromines in the Kenyan part of Lake Victoria were not monitored in detail prior to the Nile perch upsurge. Besides, it is far from well-known which species are still present in Kenyan waters of the lake after the dramatic ecological changes in the lake during the last decades. Pending more accurate information on their past and present status, the lacustrine Lake Victoria haplochromines as well as those from Lake Kanyaboli, a satellite lake of Lake Victoria, have been omitted from the present annotated checklist.HYDROGRAPHY OF KENYAKenya is a large country with a surface area of approximately 570,000 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩. The western and central parts of Kenya consist of highland plateaus, which are divided from north to south by the Great Rift Valley. Kenya's hydrography (figure 1) is dominated by a series of lakes, rivers, floodplains and swamps. According to Vanden Bossche & Bernacsek (1990) the major Kenyan lakes fall into two main groups:a) Lake Victoria: Kenya possesses 6% of Lake Victoria, most of which has a depth of less than 20 m.b) The Rift Valley lakes: the larger Rift Valley lakes are Lake Turkana (an interior basin, interconnected with the river Nile in ancient times), Lake Baringo, Lakes Bogoria, Nakuru and Elmenteita (three salt lakes without autochthonous fish except for Lake Bogoria which has fish in some of its affluents) and Lakes Naivasha and Magadi. Three small international water bodies (Lakes Jipe and Chala, and the Amboseli swamps) are shared between Kenya and Tanzania. Many other small lakes are dotted around the country, and there are several on the lower floodplains of the Tana and Sabaki rivers.Figure 1. Hydrography of Kenya.The riverine drainage systems of Kenya are largely influenced by the Great Rift Valley and six major drainage basins are evident:1) Lake Victoria: the lake basin is a multi-river basin containing eight rivers of significant size (Sio, Nzoia, Yala, Nyando, Sondu, Miriu, Migori and Mara Rivers). These rivers drain nearly half of Kenya's runoff, carrying it westward into Lake Victoria. Their catchment comprises the area west of the Rift Valley, delineated by Mount Elgon in the North.2) Rift Valley: an area with its own internal drainage, discharging northwards into or draining in the direction of Lake Turkana (Kerio, Turkwell, Suguta Rivers) and southwards into Lake Natron (Southern Ewaso Nyiro), with several sub-drainage rivers and lakes.3) Athi River: the southern catchment east of the Rift Valley, draining from the central highlands to the Indian Ocean. It is the second largest eastward flowing river of Kenya, rising near Nairobi. Its major affluents are the Nairobi and the Tsavo Rivers. Below the confluence of the Athi and the Tsavo Rivers, the river is called Galana. Its lower course is called the Sabaki.4) Tana River: the largest river of Kenya draining eastward from Mount Kenya to the Indian Ocean. The river system passes through most of Kenya's agro-climatic zones from humid and cold areas on Mount Kenya and the Aberdares, to very arid and very hot zones over much of the lower Tana. The cold upper reaches of the Tana River (above 1,500 m) were stocked with trout in colonial times. Further downstream the upper Tana is impounded by dams at five sites (Masinga, Kamburu, Gitaru, Kindaruma and Kiambere) which have produced increasing amounts of tilapias and common carp (escaped from Sagana fish farm) and mudfish, Clarias gariepinus (Jumbe, 1997). The fish communities of the lower courses (below the rapids at Kora) seem to be fairly undisturbed. They are subjected to large seasonal fluctuations in the amount of water carried to the Indian Ocean, normally with peaks in November and May. From Garissa to the sea the river meanders across a broad floodplain where ox-bows, cut-offs and associated river forms are common. The river enters the Indian Ocean at Kipini, southwest of Lamu.5) Northern Ewaso Nyiro: the largest but driest catchment in Kenya. This river drains the northern flanks of Mount Kenya and the Aberdare Mountains. In former and much wetter times, the Northern Ewaso Nyiro was an affluent of the lower Juba River, but today it ends in the Lorian Swamps where it dries up. In exceptional floods, flows continue into Somalia.6) Pangani drainage: this river drains the southern and southeastern flanks of the Kilimanjaro. The largest part of this drainage is situated in Tanzania; parts of the upper Pangani drainage including the Lumi River and the eastern half of Lake Jipe, however, are located in Kenya. Lake Chala (a small isolated crater Lake shared with Tanzania) might have an underground connection with the Pangani system.THE KENYAN ICHTHYOFAUNAThe checklist contains 206 species belonging to 88 genera and 38 families (appendix 1, figures 2-20) and gives a fairly accurate picture of the freshwater fish diversity currently known from Kenya. At least 18 species (Anguilla anguilla, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Carassius carassius, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, Oreochromis andersonii, O. leucostictus, O. macrochir, certain strains of O. niloticus, Tilapia rendalli, Haplochromis spec. "Chala", Lepomis cyanellus, L. macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides) were introduced into the country, deliberately or accidentally escaping from fish farms. Four of them (Anguilla anguilla, S. fontinalis, L. cyanellus and L. macrochirus) apparently did not establish as self- sustaining populations in natural waters after their introduction. It is currently unknown if four other introduced species (Carassius carassius, Ctenopharyngodon idella, O. andersonii and O. macrochir) are established in the wild. Therefore they are all listed with a query.Figure 2. PROTOPTERIDAE: Protopterus aethiopicus aethiopicus.Figure 3. POLYPTERIDAE: Polypterus senegalus senegalus.Figure 4. OSTEOGLOSSIDAE: Heterotis niloticus (after Boulenger, 1909).Figure 5. GYMNARCHIDAE: Gymnarchus niloticus (after Boulenger, 1909).The list indicates the current known distribution of each species in Kenya, common (English) fish names and local fish names in various African indigenous languages. In several cases the English names are newly proposed. Local fish names are extracted from Copley (1941, 1952, 1958) and Hopson & Hopson (1982) or obtained from local fishermen during fieldwork. Some additional local names for Lake Turkana fishes were provided by J. Malala (KMFRI, Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Kalokol, Turkana). Currently information on local fish names is scarce and much more data should be obtained.Where available, the list gives annotations referring to introductions, distribution and taxonomic status of the species. Reference is given to older records, sometimes based on misidentifications or using antiquated names. Annotations related to the use of antiquated binominal combinations do not go back in the past earlier than the list of Kenyan fishes published by Copley (1941). Older antiquated binomina published before Copley's list, are not recorded. For the large tilapiines we follow the nomenclature as proposed by Trewavas (1983). For more details on this group the reader is referred to this authoritative work.The present checklist is not final: the taxonomic status of several Kenyan fishes is currently unresolved and several species from Kenyan waters still await a formal description. More surveys are required to discover more about fish communities in various hydrographic systems of Kenya.For instance, the genus Barbus (Cyprinidae) is restricted to a small number of species mainly inhabiting the European ichthyographic region including Northeast Africa. Most of the African species which are currently included in the genus, taxonomically do not appear to be closely related to the genus Barbus sensu strictu. However, no attempts have yet been made for an adequate nomenclature of the African forms. We therefore follow Berrebi et al. (1996) and use in this paper the term 'Barbus' for the cyprinid fish species which were previously considered as Barbus.The taxonomic status of some small barbus from Kenya is currently unresolved, a few of which are under description. 'Barbus' usambarae Lönnberg, 1907, described from the Pangani drainage near Tanga (Tanzania) might occur in Kenyan waters but so far has not been collected there. 'Barbus' serengetiensis Farm, 2000, a small species from affluent rivers in the Serengeti (Mara River system, Tanzania), also might occur in the Kenyan part of the Mara drainage. 'Barbus' profundus Greenwood, 1970 is known from deeper waters of Lake Victoria in Uganda and Tanzania but the species might also occur in Kenyan waters, which however needs confirmation.Like the small 'Barbus', the taxonomy of the large 'Barbus' is not completely resolved either, despite a revision of the East and Central African forms by Banister (1973).The taxonomy of several labeos (Cyprinidae, genus Labeo) is very confused. Besides, one or two undescribed species occur in coastal stretches of Kenya rivers.The taxonomy of Nile perches (Centropomidae, genus Lates) from Lakes Victoria and Turkana needs revision.Figure 6. MORMYRIDAE: a. Gnathonemus longibarbis (after Boulenger, 1909), b. Marcusenius victoriae; c. Mormyrus kannume (after Boulenger, 1909); d. Pollimyrus nigricans (after Boulenger, 1909).Figure 7. ALESTIDAE: a. Alestes dentex (after Boulenger, 1909), b. Brycinus sadleri c. Hydrocynus vittatus.Two unidentified mormyrids (Mormyridae, genus Marcusenius) currently known from scientific collections, are probably new for science and need to be described. The taxonomy of the genus Mormyrus is largely unresolved and tentative.Various suckermouth populations (Mochokidae, genus Chiloglanis) from Kenyan waters need further taxonomic study to establish their exact status. Some Synodontis species (e.g. the group "S. zanzibaricus") also need detailed investigation.A riverine haplochromine species from the Migori River, Lake Victoria system, known from scientific collections, still has to be described formally. The same is probably true for an unidentified Haplochromis species from Lake Amboseli. We use the generic name Haplochromis for the species of this group pending more in-depth studies of the haplochromines. The taxonomic status of the haplochromines from Lakes Chala and Jipe (Pangani drainage) is still under investigation.The taxonomic status of a peculiar species of Nothobranchius (family Aplocheilidae) from Lake Victoria is uncertain.Two lampeyes (family Aplocheilichthyidae, genus Aplocheilichthys) from Lake Baringo and Lake Naivasha respectively, although not formally described, are listed under the names A. spec. "Baringo" and A. spec. "Naivasha". The taxonomic status of the species from Lake Baringo (whose population is currently threatened by competition with the introduced guppy) is not yet fully resolved. The species from Lake Naivasha has now become extinct even before a scientific description has been published.Brycinus macrolepidotus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1849, Neobola bottegoi Vinciguerra, 1895 and Andersonia leptura Boulenger, 1900 have been reported from the delta of the Omo River system, the only permanent tributary of Lake Turkana on Ethiopian territory (see Hopson & Hopson, 1982, Howes, 1984) but they seem to be absent from Lake Turkana as a whole. Since their presence in Kenyan waters of the Turkana system is uncertain and requires confirmation, they are not listed here.Some species with present uncertain taxonomic status are indicated with "aff." (from the Latin "affinitas"), e.g. Protopterus aff. amphibius or Leptoglanis aff. rotundiceps. This suggests a close affinity or possible conspecific status with the nominal species reported.Several records of fish previously listed from Kenya are erroneous and consequently omitted from the present checklist. For example a Kenyan record of Polypterus ansorgii Boulenger, 1910 in FishBase 2000 (Froese & Pauly, 2000) is based on a misinterpretation of a locality in West Africa. Records in FishBase 2000 of Chelaethiops congicus (Nichols & Griscom, 1917) and Alestopetersius leopoldianus (Boulenger, 1899) from Kenya, based on information retrieved from Cloffa 1, are erroneous; the former species was not reported from Kenya in Cloffa 1, while the latter was erroneously recorded from Lake Victoria by Paugy (1984). A record of Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (Gray, 1831) from Kenya in FishBase 2000 (Froese & Pauly, 2000) is unsubstantiated. Records of Nothobranchius taeniopygus Hilgendorf, 1891 from western Kenya by Wourms (1965) and from southwestern Kenya by Huber (1996) are based on misidentifications. Aplocheilichthys loati (Boulenger, 1901) reported from Kenya in FishBase 2000 (Froese & Pauly, 2000) based on data from Huber (1996) so far has not been positively identified from Kenyan waters. Records from the Galana (Lower Athi) by Skelton (1994) of the fish species Marcusenius livingstonii (Boulenger, 1899), Barbus innocens Pfeffer, 1896, B. laticeps Pfeffer, 1893, B. quadripunctatus Pfeffer, 1896, Brycinus imberi (Peters, 1852), Synodontis maculipinna Norman, 1922, Aplocheilichthys kongoranensis (Ahl, 1924), Nothobranchius foerschi Wildekamp & Berkenkamp, 1979, N. janpapi Wildekamp, 1977, N. lourensi Wildekamp, 1977 and N. steinforti Wildekamp, 1977 are unsubstantiated. The reference sources quoted by Skelton for listing those species in fact do not mention their presence in the Galana. A record of an introduction of the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna (LeSueur, 1821) and records of Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839), Pristis microdon (Latham, 1794), Hippichthys cyanospilus (Bleeker, 1854), Kuhlia rupestris (Lacepède, 1802), Monodactylus argenteus (Linnaeus, 1758), Scatophagus tetracanthus (La Cepède, 1802), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), Butis butis (Hamilton, 1822) and Acentrogobius simplex (Sauvage, 1880) by Okeyo (1998) are unsubstantiated and need confirmation.Figure 8. CYPRINIDAE: a. 'Barbus' altianalis; b. 'Barbus' cercops (after Boulenger, 1909); c. 'Barbus' magdalenae (after Boulenger, 1911); d. Chelaethiops bibie; e. Garra dembeensis (after Boulenger, 1911), f. Labeo horie, g. Labeo victorianus; h. Leptocypris niloticus (after Boulenger, 1911); i. Raiamas senegalensis.The goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) is currently used for aquaculture purposes in Sagana fish farm (upper Tana River system). So far the species is not established in the wild but there is always the risk of it escaping from the farm like other species have done in the past.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSField work in Kenya was made possible through funds secured by the second author from the Framework Agreement between the Africa Museum Tervuren (MRAC) and the Belgian General Directorate for International Co-operation (GDIC), the Kenya Museum Society (KMS, Nairobi) and the Belgian Foundation for Promotion of Scientific Research in Africa. We are very grateful to the National Museums of Kenya (NMK), the Kenya Fisheries Department (DOF), the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), the Flemish Office for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB, Brussels) and to the staff of the Ichthyology Department NMK and the Vertebrate Section MRAC. Mr. R. Watson (Nairobi) gave valuable comments on a first draft of this checklist. The first author is thankful to S. Engelhardt, Kikambala, Kenya, for various help.REFERENCESBanister, K.E. (1973). A revision of the large Barbus (Pisces, Cyprinidae) of East and Central Africa. Studies on African Cyprinidae Part II. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 26(1): 1-148.Berrebi, P., M. Kottelat, P. Skelton & P. Rab (1996). Systematics of Barbus: state of the art and heuristic comments. Folia Zoologica 45(Suppl. 1): 5-12.Bigorne, R. (1987). Le genre Mormyrops (Pisces, Mormyridae) en Afrique de l'Ouest. Revue d' Hydrobiologie Tropicale 20(2): 145-164.Boulenger, G.A. (1898). A revision of the genera and species of fishes of the family Mormyridae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London: 775-821.Boulenger, G.A. (1903). Description of four new species of Barbus discovered by Mr. A. Blayney Percival in East Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 11 (61): 52-54.Boulenger, G.A. (1909). Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). 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East African Freshwater Fisheries Organization, Annual Report 1962/63: 53-62 (Appendix G).Mann, M.J. (1966). A preliminary report on a survey of fisheries of the Tana River, Kenya. East African Freshwater Fisheries Organization, Annual Report 1965: 36-43.Mann, M.J. (1968). A note on a second survey of the fisheries of the Tana River, Kenya. East African Freshwater Fisheries Organization, Annual Report 1967: 38-41.Mann, M.J. (1971). Some taxonomical notes on the fish fauna of the Baringo area. The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries 1(1): 25-34.Maugé, L. A. (1986). Gobiidae. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse & D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.), Checklist of the freshwater fishes of Africa, Vol. 2. MRAC- ORSTOM. Pp. 358-388.Mo, T. (1991). Anatomy, relationships and systematics of the Bagridae (Teleostei: Siluroidei) with a hypothesis of siluroid phylogeny. Theses zoologicae 17: 1-216.Muchiri, S. M. & P. Hickley (1991). The fishery of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. In I.G. 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A Revision of African Species of Labeo (Pisces: Cyprinidae) and a re-definition of the genus. Theses Zoologicae 6: 1-322.Seegers, L. (1996). The Fishes of the Lake Rukwa Drainage. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Sciences Zoologiques 287: 1-407.Figure 18. CICHLIDAE: a. Astatoreochromis alluaudi (after Boulenger, 1915), b. Oreochromis niloticus (after De Vos et al., 1990), c. Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor (after Boulenger, 1915).Figure 19. ELEOTRIDAE: Eleotris fusca.Figure 20 ANABANTIDAE: Ctenopoma muriei.Seegers, L. (1998). Der Jadesee.1. Die Cichliden des Lake Turkana in Kenya. Aquarium Heute 16(4): 182-188.Seegers, L. & H. Tichy (1999). The Oreochromis alcalicus flock (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Natron and Magadi, Tanzania and Kenya, with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 10(2): 97-146.Skelton, P.H. (1994). Diversity and distribution of freshwater fishes in East and Southern Africa. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Sciences Zoologiques, 275: 95-131.Skorepa, V. (1992). Note on the East-African barbel, Barbus intermedius (Cyprinidae, Osteichthyes) from Kito Pass, Northern Kenya. Acta Societas Zoologia Bohemoslov. 56: 57-62.Ssentongo, G.W. (1974). On the fishes and fisheries of Lake Baringo. The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries 3(1): 95-106.Ssentongo, G.W. (1996). Report on the present Fisheries situation of Lake Baringo. Unpublished Report, FAO Fisheries Department, Rome.Stewart, D.J. (1977). Geographic variation of Barbus radiatus Peters, a widely distributed African cyprinid fish. Environmental Biology of Fishes 1(2): 113-125.Teugels, G.G. (1986). A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces; Clariidae). Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences zoologiques, 247: 1-199.Trewavas, E. (1973). On the cichlid fishes of the genus Pelmatochromis with proposal of a new genus for P. congicus; on the relationship between Pelmatochromis and Tilapia and the recognition of Sarotherodon as a distinct genus. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 25(1): 1-26.Trewavas, E. (1983). Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Museum (Natural History), London.Vanden Bossche, J.P. & G.M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Vol. 1. CIFA Technical Paper 18/1, FAO, Rome.Van Oijen, M.J.P., J. Snoeks, P.H. Skelton, C. Maréchal & G.G. Teugels (1991). Haplochromis. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels & D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.), Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Africa, Vol. 4, MRAC-ORSTOM. Pp. 100-184.Vareschi, E. (1979). The ecology of Lake Nakuru (Kenya). II. Biomass and spatial distribution of fish. Oecologia (Berlin) 37: 321-335.Welcomme, R.L. (1967). Observations on the biology of the introduced species of Tilapia in Lake Victoria. Revue Zoologique et Botanique Africaine 76(3-4): 249-279.Welcomme, R.L. (1988). International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 294: 1-318.Whitehead, P.J.P. (1959). Note on a collection of fishes from the Tana River below Garissa, Kenya. East African Agricultural Journal 23: 167-171.Whitehead, P.J.P. (1960). The river fisheries of Kenya. Part II -The Lower Athi (Sabaki) River. East African Agricultural Journal 25(4): 259-265.Whitehead, P.J.P. (1962). The relationship between Tilapia nigra (Günther) and T. mossambica Peters in the eastern rivers of Kenya. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. London 138: 605-637.Wildekamp, R.H. (1994). The Nothobranchius species from Uganda, with description of a new polymorphic species (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 5(3): 193-206.Wildekamp, R. H. (1995). A World of Killies. Atlas of the Oviparous Cyprinodontiform Fishes of the World. Vol. II. American Killifish Association.Woodhouse, G.W. (1912). The fish in Lake Magadi. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 2: 95-97.Worthington, E.B. & C.K. Ricardo (1936). Scientific results of the Cambridge expedition to the East African lakes, 1930-1. No. 15. The fish of Lake Rudolf and Lake Baringo. The Journal of the Linnean Society of London-Zoology 39(267): 353-389.Wourms, J.B. (1965). Comparative observations on the early embryology of Nothobranchius taeniopygus (Hilgendorf) and Aplocheilichthys pumilus (Boulenger), with special reference on the problem of naturally occurring embryonic diapauses in Teleost fishes. East African Freshwater Fisheries Research Organisation, Annual Report 1964 68-73 (Appendix H).Appendix 1. Annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Kenya, indicating the currently known distribution, common English names and local names in various indigenous African languages. SL indicates standard length; TL indicates total length.Species, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthPROTOPTERIDAE-African Lungfishes (3 species)Protopterus aethiopicus aethiopicus Heckel, 1851 (Fig. 2) Marbled lungfish "Mamba" (Swahili, Luo, L. Victoria), "Kamongo" (Luo, Lake Victoria) "Monye" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria drainage, Lake Kanyaboli and Lake Turkana; introduced into Lake Baringo in 1974; records of this species from elsewhere in Kenya are based on misidentifications; first record for Lake Turkana where the species seems to be very rare: currently there are only 3 records from the lake (KMFRI station, Kalokol, Turkana); 200 cm TL.Protopterus aff. amphibius (Peters, 1844) Kenyan lungfish "Nyangoro" (Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Ngumbi" (Giriama, Lower Tana), "Talakute" (Swahili), "Mamba" (Swahili)Northern Ewaso Nyiro, lower parts of coastal drainages (Lower Tana River and Lower Galana-Sabaki); also reported from Lake Jilore (Sabaki system) which is now dry; taxonomic status of the Kenyan populations uncertain; most likely it is a species distinct from Protopterus amphibius; 45 cm TLProtopterus aff. annectens (Owen, 1839) Tana lungfish "Mamba" (Swahili and Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Tonzi" (Giriama, Lower Tana)Lower Tana River; also reported as Protopterus annectens annectens; the taxonomic status of the Kenyan populations is unclear; 100 cm TLPOLYPTERIDAE-Bichirs (2 species)Polypterus bichir bichir Geoffroy Saint- Hilaire, 1802 Nile bichir "Nagir" (Turkana, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana basin; also reported as Polypterus bichir; 68 cm TLPolypterus senegalus senegalus Cuvier, 1829 (Fig. 3) Gray bichir "Nagiri", "Nagir" (Turkana, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana basin; also reported as Polypterus senegalus; 50.5 cm TLOSTEOGLOSSIDAE-Bonytongues (1 species)Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) (Fig. 4) African bonytongue "Dese" (Turkana, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; 98 cm SLMORMYRIDAE-Snoutfishes, Elephant-snout fishes (15 species)Gnathonemus longibarbis (Hilgendorf, 1888) (Fig. 6a) Longnose stonebasher "Ondhuri", "Obobo" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Bobo" (Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria basin; 36 cm TLHippopotamyrus grahami (Norman, 1928) Graham's stonebasher "Kuumpi" (Lake Victoria)Endemic to Lake Victoria basin; also reported as Marcusenius grahami (antiquated binomen); 20 cm TLHyperopisus bebe (La Cepède, 1803) NgaiLake Turkana system; currently no specimens of this species are known from scientific collections from Lake Turkana, but local fishermen have confirmed the presence of Hyperopisus bebe in the northern part of the lake; the name of the author of this species (La Cepède), is spelled in various ways in literature (e.g. Lacépède, Lacepède or Lacepede); however, the title page of Volume 5 of his work of 1803 gives the spelling La Cepède; for this reason the name of this author is spelled here in this way; 51 cm SLMarcusenius aff. macrolepidotus (Peters, 1852)Sabaki drainage, lower Tana drainage; the specific status of the Kenyan populations is uncertain; 13.5 cm SL.Species, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthTana-bulldog "Mbelewele" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Marcusenius victoriae (Worthington, 1929) (Fig. 6b) Victoria stonebasherLake Victoria basin; also reported as Gnathonemus victoriae (old binomen); Gnathonemus rheni Fowler, 1936 described from Lake Victoria (Ugandese waters) is most likely a junior synonym of Marcusenius victoriae (see Greenwood, 1966); 26 cm TLMarcusenius spec. "Malindi" Sabaki stonebasherSabaki drainage; undescribed speciesMarcusenius spec. "Turkwell" Turkana stonebasherTurkwell River (Turkana drainage); undescribed speciesMormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus, 1758) Cornish JackNorthern Ewaso Nyiro system; previously reported as Mormyrops deliciosus (Leach, 1818), a junior synonym of M. anguilloides (see Bigorne, 1987); the taxonomic position of this Kenyan population is uncertain: the species might be identical with M. citernii Vinciguerra, 1913 described from the Juba system in Somalia; an uncertain record of M. anguilloides from the Athi River basin discussed by Okeyo (1998) is unsubstantiated; 100 cm TLMormyrus bernhardi Pellegrin, 1926 Bernhard's elephant-snout fishEndemic to Athi River system; validity doubtful; possibly a junior synonym of Mormyrus hildebrandti; 19 cm SLMormyrus hildebrandti Peters, 1882 Hildebrandt's elephant-snout fishEndemic to Athi River system (including Tsavo drainage and Mzima Springs); sometimes misspelled as Mormyrus hildebrandi; the tentative synonymy of M. hildebrandti with M. kannume by Boulenger (1898) is dubious and not followed here; 20 cm SLMormyrus kannume Forsskål, 1775 (Fig. 6c) Elephant-snout fish "Mkale", "Lomakale" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Shubule" (Samburu, North Ewaso Nyiro), "Suma", "Aduoyo" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; Lake Turkana basin: Lake Kamnarok (Kerio system), River Turkwell, Omo delta; Northern Ewaso Nyiro; records of the Tana and Athi systems are dubious and probably refer to a different species; the status of the North Ewaso Nyiro populations is uncertain and also needs further study; 100 cm TLMormyrus tenuirostris Peters, 1882 Athi elephant-snout fish "Mwana hamari" (Pokomo, Lower Tana) "Tangu" (Athi River)Athi and Tana River systems; 33.2 cm SL.Petrocephalus catostoma catostoma (Günther, 1866) Churchill "Abobo", "Obobo" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; also reported as Petrocephalus degeni Boulenger, 1906, a junior synonym; 15.0 cm FLPetrocephalus catostoma tanensis Whitehead & Greenwood, 1959 Tana-churchill "Kiawara" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Tana River (middle and lower courses) endemic to the Tana system; 15.2 cm TLPollimyrus nigricans (Boulenger, 1906) (Fig. 6d) Dark stonebasher "Abobo" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria basin; also reported as Marcusenius nigricans (antiquated binomen); 10 cm TLGYMNARCHIDAE-Gymnarchids (1 species)Gymnarchus niloticus Cuvier, 1829 Aba (Fig. 5) "Lowarayame" (Turkana, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana basin (northern part); 151 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthMEGALOPIDAE-Tarpons (1 species)Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet, 1782) Oxeye tarpon, Indo-Pacific tarpon "Tazanda" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Coast; entering lagoons and estuaries, also ascending rivers; Lower Tana and Sabaki Rivers, lower courses of small coastal rivers; 35 cm TLANGUILLIDAE-Eels (4 species)Anguilla anguilla ? (Linnaeus, 1758) European eelLake Victoria system; introduced in the catchment (escaped some years ago from fish farms in Uganda); normally not reproducing and thus expected not to survive in the wild in the future; 150 cm TLAnguilla bengalensis labiata Peters, 1852 African mottled eel, Spotted eel "Mukunga", "Mkunga", "Fiyoka" (Pokomo, Lower Tana) "Panga", "Mkonge" (Swahili)Eastward flowing rivers (Athi and Tana drainages); an eel which is found in Mzima Springs (Tsavo West National Park, Tsavo River system) most likely belongs to this species; migratory species, breeds in the ocean; previously also reported under the names Anguilla labiata and A. nebulosa labiata; 145 cm TLAnguilla bicolor bicolor McClelland, 1845 Shortfin eel "Mukunga", "Mkunga" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Tana River (Copley, 1958); possibly also occurring in other eastward flowing rivers; currently not in collections from Kenyan rivers; migratory species, breeds in the ocean; Anguilla unicolor, reported by Copley (1941) from the Athi river is most likely a lapsus for this species or can be considered as a nomen nudum; 64 cm TLAnguilla mossambica Peters, 1852 Longfin eel, African longfin eel "Mukunga", "Mkunga" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Athi and Tana River systems (Copley, 1941, 1958); migratory species, breeds in the ocean; 120 cm TLCLUPEIDAE-Herrings, Clupeids, Sardines (1 species)Pellona ditchela Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1847 Indian pellonaMarine species occasionally entering lower reaches of eastward flowing rivers (Tana and Sabaki); 16 cm SLCHANIDAE-Milkfishes (1 species)Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) MilkfishLower part of Sabaki River (Whitehead, 1960); marine species entering estuaries and rivers; 100 cm TLCYPRINIDAE-Cyprinids (50 species)'Barbus' altianalis Boulenger, 1900 (Fig. 8a) Ripon Falls barb "Kasinja", "Odhadho", "Fwani", "Sire" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; also reported from Lake Victoria under several synonymous names: Labeo rüppellii Pfeffer, 1896, Barbus radcliffii Boulenger, 1903, B. lobogenys Boulenger, 1906, B. bayoni Boulenger, 1911, B. pietschmanni Lohberger, 1922, B. hollyi Lohberger, 1922 and B. altianalis radcliffii Boulenger, 1903; records from the latter species from the Tana (see Mann, 1966, 1967) are based on misidentifications;. 'Barbus' procathopus Boulenger 1916 was originally discribed from "The Amala River, entering the east side of Lake Baringo."; Banister (1973) stated that this species is a junior synonym of 'B.' intermedius australis; it appears however that the type locality of B. procathopus is erroneous: the Amala River is not in the Baringo area but refers to a tributary of the Mara River, Lake Victoria system; De Vos et al. (work in progress) therefore pointed out that B. procatopus is a junior synonym of 'B.' altianalis; 90 cm TL'Barbus' apleurogramma Boulenger, 1911 East African redfinned barb "Adel" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria basin, Lake Kanyaboli, Amboseli swamps, Athi River system (including Mzima springs, Tsavo drainage); Barbus amboseli Banister, 1980, a junior synonym of B. apleurogramma (De Vos & Seegers, work in progress), was listed with a query from the Tana River by Skelton (1994); as currently known, the species does not occur in the Tana River system; 4.5 cm SLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known length'Barbus' bynni (Forsskål, 1775) Nile barb "Momwara", "Toto Chibule" (Turkana, Lake Turkana) "Kisinya" (Lunyoro) "Arite" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; also reported as Barbus meneliki Pellegrin, 1905 and B. bynni rudolfianus Worthington, 1932, both junior synonyms; 82 cm TL'Barbus' cercops Whitehead, 1960 (Fig. 8b) Luambwa barbLake Victoria drainage, Southern Ewaso Nyiro system; the status of the Southern Ewaso Nyiro population needs to be examined in detail; also reported from Lake Victoria drainage as Barbus trispilopleura Boulenger, 1902, a misidentification; 6 cm SL'Barbus' intermedius Rüppell, 1835 Ethiopia barb "Libili", "Fwani" (Baringo)Northern Ewaso Nyiro, Lake Baringo drainage, Lake Bogoria system (affluent rivers), Lake Turkana basin (Turkwell River system, Kerio River system), Suguta drainage; Records of B. gregorii (a junior synonym of B. intermedius) from the Tana system (Boulenger, 1911) are based on wrong collection localities (see Mann, 1971 and Banister, 1973); the taxonomic status of the Kenyan populations is not yet fully settled; previously also recorded under the synonymous names Barbus gregorii Boulenger, 1902, B. plagiostomus Boulenger, 1902 and B. erlangeri Boulenger, 1903.According to Skorepa (1992) the distinction of two subspecies, B. intermedius intermedius Rüppell, 1835, widely distributed throughout Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya and B intermedius australis Banister, 1973 only occuring in the Baringo drainage, as proposed by Banister (1973) is unjustified. Consequently the subspecific nomenclature is not applied here. Banisters subspecies 'B.' intermedius australis is in fact a junior synonym of 'B.' gregorii and the correct name for the Baringo subspecies should have been 'B.' intermedius gregorii. 'Barbus' procathopus Boulenger 1916 was originally discribed from "The Amala River, entering the east side of Lake Baringo." Banister (1973) stated that this species is a junior synonym of 'B.' intermedius australis. It appears however that the type locality of B. procathopus is erroneous: the Amala River is not in the Baringo area but refers to a tributary of the Mara River, Lake Victoria system. De Vos et al. (work in progress) therefore pointed out that B. procatopus is a junior synonym of 'B.' altianalis. Banister (1973) assumed that the year of publication of B. intermedius was 1837. Lévêque & Daget (1984) however mentioned 1836 as date of publication while Daget et al. (1986) gave the year 1835 as publication date. In fact Rüppell published the first description of the species in separates which are dated 1835 on the title page as was reported by Banister (1973: 47). Therefore, in agreement with articles 21.2 and 21.8 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), the year 1835 is the correct date of Rüppell's publication; 48.9 cm SL'Barbus' jacksoni Günther, 1889 Jackson's barbPangani drainage, Lake Victoria basin, Athi River system; also reported under the name Barbus nummifer Boulenger, 1904, a junior synonym; 11.6 cm SL'Barbus' kerstenii Peters, 1868 Kersten's barb, Redspot barbPangani drainage, Lake Victoria basin, Lake Kanyaboli, Athi and Tana River systems, Northern and Southern Ewaso Nyiro Systems; this group needs revision: several populations currently included in this species might represent distinct taxa; previously also reported as Barbus lumiensis Boulenger, 1903, B. minchini Boulenger, 1906 and B. akeleyi Hubbs, 1918, all junior synonyms; previous subspecific distinction (B. kerstenii kerstenii and B. kerstenii luhondo Pappenheim & Boulenger, 1914) is currently not maintained (see De Vos & Thys van den Audenaerde, 1990); 7.5 cm SLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known length'Barbus' lineomaculatus Boulenger, 1903 Line-spotted barbUpper Pangani drainage; this group needs revision; several populations from outside of Kenya, currently included in this species, might represent distinct taxa; records of this species from Lake Baringo (Mann, 1971; Ssentongo, 1974) are based on misidentifications; 8.2 cm TL'Barbus' loveridgii Boulenger, 1916 Loveridge's barbLake Victoria basin; this species was described from the "Amala river, entering the east side of Lake Baringo" (Boulenger, 1916, p. 245), a doubtful locality undoubtedly referring to a tributary of the Mara River in Western Kenya, Lake Victoria system (Seegers & De Vos, work in progress); 6.6 cm SL'Barbus' magdalenae Boulenger, 1906 (Fig. 8c) Bunjako barbEndemic to Lake Victoria basin; 6.6 cm SL'Barbus' mariae Holly, 1929 Rhino-fish "Domo" (Kamba, Athi River) "Kasinja" (Athi River) "Koovo" (Tana River) "Matonzi", "Kambale" (M'Kamba)Athi and Tana river systems (upper courses); specific status uncertain; according to Banister (1973) Barbus matris Holly, 1928 described from the Athi River is probably a senior synonym of B. mariae; possibly both nominal species are junior synonyms of B. oxyrhynchus Pfeffer, 1889; Copley (1938) recorded this species under the name B. rhinoceros, a nomen nudum; 34.2 cm TL'Barbus' mimus Boulenger, 1912 Ewaso Nyiro barbNorthern Ewaso Nyiro and Tana river system; 5.5 cm TL'Barbus' neumayeri Fischer, 1884 Neumayer's barbNorthern and Southern Ewaso Nyiro drainages, Athi and Tana river systems, Lake Victoria basin, Lake Turkana system; also recorded from affluents of Lake Bogoria drainage (Mann, 1971); also reported under the names Barbus percivali Boulenger, 1903, B. nairobiensis Boulenger, 1911 and B. luazomela Lönnberg, 1911, all junior synonyms; the B. neumayeri group needs revision; 10.3 cm SL'Barbus' nyanzae Whitehead, 1960 Nyanza barb "Adel", "Kandhira" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Endemic to Lake Victoria basin; 6 cm SL'Barbus' oxyrhynchus Pfeffer, 1889 Pangani barb "Domo" (Kamba) "Okejoo" (Tana River) "Mtonzi", "Kambale", "Kuyu" (Athi River) "Kambala" (Meru, Tana River) "Kasimba" (Athi River) "Ningu" (Kikuyu, Upper Tana system)Upper Pangani drainage, Athi and Tana river systems (upper and middle courses), Northern Ewaso Nyiro; recorded under various synonymous names: Barbus tanensis Günther, 1894, B. hindii Boulenger, 1902, B. perplexicans Boulenger, 1902, B. labiatus Boulenger, 1902, B. krapfi Boulenger, 1911, B. mathoiae Boulenger, 1911, B. ahlselli Lönnberg, 1911, B. athi Hubbs, 1918, B. babaulti Pellegrin, 1926, B. nairobi Holly, 1928 and B. donyensis Holly, 1929; Barbus copleyae (a nomen nudum) reported from the Athi River by Copley (1941) most likely refers to B. oxyrhynchus; a record by Copley (1941) of B. gregorii (non Boulenger) from the Tana River is a misidentification for 'B.' oxyrhynchus; the taxonomic status of various Kenyan populations is not yet fully settled; 36.9 cm SL'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852 Straightfin barbDistribution: Lake Victoria basin, Athi and Tana River systems, Northern and Southern Ewaso Nyiro basins, Upper Pangani system, Amboseli swamps, Lake Naivasha and affluents. Also reported under the names Barbus taitensis Günther, 1894, B. amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, B. macropristis Boulenger, 1904, B. thikensis Boulenger, 1905 and B. helleri Hubbs, 1918 all are junior synonyms; Muchiri & Hickley (1991) report that B amphigramma was introduced in Lake Naivasha; in contrast, they also mention that the species is a natural invader in the lake from inflowing rivers; Lever (1996) imprecisely quotes Muchiri & Hickley by reporting that B. amphigramma was introduced into rivers near Lake Naivasha from Tanzania in 1982; obviously B. paludinosus is naturally distributed in the Lake Naivasha system; 11.4 cm SL 13.0 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known length'Barbus' quadripunctatus Pfeffer, 1896 Fourspotted barbPangani drainage; 3.5 cm TL'Barbus' radiatus Peters, 1853 Beira barb, Redeye barbLake Victoria basin, Tana River system; also reported under the names Barbus doggetti Boulenger, 1904 and B. radiatus radiatus, junior synonyms (subspecific distinction rejected by Stewart, 1977); 9.6 cm TL'Barbus' sexradiatus Boulenger, 1911 Kavirondo barbLake Victoria drainage; a dubious species only known from the holotype; 5.6 cm SL'Barbus' aff. stigmatopygus Boulenger, 1903 Mid spot barbLake Turkana drainage (Turkwell, Kerio and Kalakol Rivers); doubtful identification; the taxonomic status of the Kenyan populations is not yet fully settled; also recorded from Lake Turkana drainage as Barbus werneri Boulenger, 1905, a junior synonym; 2.4 cm TL'Barbus' toppini Boulenger, 1916 East-Coast barb "Shaa" (Giriama, Lower Tana)Lower Tana and Sabaki drainages, Northern Ewaso Nyiro; the status of the Northern Ewaso Nyiro population is uncertain; 4.0 cm TL'Barbus' turkanae Hopson & Hopson, 1982 Lake Turkana barbEndemic to Lake Turkana; 4.2 cm SL'Barbus' venustus Bailey, 1980 Red Pangani barbEndemic to Pangani drainage (including lake Jipe); 3 cm SL'Barbus' viktorianus Lohberger, 1929 Victoria barbLake Victoria basin; a dubious species only known from two type specimens; 7.1 cm TL'Barbus' yongei Whitehead, 1960 Nzoia barb "Adel" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Endemic to Lake Victoria drainage; 5.6 cm SL'Barbus' zanzibaricus Peters, 1868 Zanzibar barb "Kihalahala" (Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Shaa" (Giriama, Lower Tana)Coastal rivers, including Sabaki and Lower Tana, Northern Ewaso Nyiro system; this species represents a polymorphic group which needs revision; also reported as Barbus argyrotaenia Boulenger, 1912, a junior synonym; 9.7 cm TL'Barbus' spec. "Baringo" Baringo barbLake Baringo system, affluents of Lake Bogoria, Turkwell River system (Lake Turkana drainage); previously reported as Barbus lineomaculatus, a misidentification (Mann, 1971; Ssentongo, 1974, 1996); undescribed small barbus currently under description (De Vos et al., work in progress); 6,2 cm SL, 8 cm TL'Barbus' spec. "Nzoia 1"Probably endemic to Nzoia River system (Lake Victoria basin, Kenya); undescribed small Barbus reported by Mugo & Tweddle (1999).'Barbus' spec. "Nzoia 2"Probably endemic to Nzoia River system (Lake Victoria basin, Kenya); undescribed small Barbus reported by Mugo & Tweddle (1999).'Barbus' spec. "Pangani" Taveta barbProbably endemic to the Upper Pangani drainage: N'joro Springs, Lumi River system; closely related to 'Barbus' apleurogramma; most likely an undescribed small Barbus, currently under description (Seegers, work in progress).Chelaethiops bibie (De Joannis, 1835) (Fig. 8d) Lake Turkana sardineDistribution: Lake Turkana; 5.5 cm TLCtenopharyngodon idella? (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1844) Grass carpDistribution: Tana and Athi river systems (?). Uncertain if this species established in the wild; native range: China and Eastern Siberia. Introduced in 1969 from Japan into Kenya for aquaculture and weed control (Welcomme, 1988); 150 cm TLCarassius carassius ? (Linnaeus, 1758) Crucian carpAccording to Welcomme (1988) introduced to Kenya; unknown if established in the wild; 64 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthCyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Common carpTana River (upper courses, dams), Lake Naivasha: introduced; Native range: Japan, China, Central Asia; introduced from Uganda to Kenya in 1969 for aquaculture; has invaded dams and some parts of rivers where it replaced indigenous tilapias as dominant species (Welcomme, 1988); 120 cm SLGarra dembeensis (Rüppell, 1835) (Fig. 8e) Dembea stone lapper "Ningu" (Kikuyu, Upper Tana system)Lake Victoria drainage, Northern Ewaso Nyiro, Pangani drainage, Athi and Tana basins; also recorded as Garra sp., Discognathus johnstonii Boulenger, 1901 and D. hindii Boulenger, 1905 (two junior synonyms) and as D. dembeensis (antiquated binomen); 8.5 cm SLLabeo cylindricus Peters, 1852 Redeye labeo "Livuli" (Lake Baringo)Pangani drainage, Athi River system (including Tsavo drainage), Galana system, Upper Tana, Northern Ewaso Nyiro basin, Lake Baringo system, Lake Bogoria drainage (affluents), Turkwell and Kerio system (Turkana drainage), Suguta drainage; might occur as a rare straggler to Lake Turkana; Boulenger (1903) reported this species from the Lumi River (Pangani drainage) as Labeo montanus (Günther, 1889), a junior synonym; 40 cm TLLabeo gregorii Günther, 1894 Gregori's labeo "Chika" (Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Kasimu", "Mkizi" (Giriama, Galana), "Nungu" (Meru, Middle Tana)Athi and Tana River systems (lower reaches); 23.1 cm TLLabeo horie Heckel, 1846 (Fig. 8f) Assuan labeo "Chibule", "Chubule" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Kara" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; the taxonomic status of the Turkana population is not yet fully settled; misspelled as Labeo lorii by Hamblyn (1962) and as L. hourie by Mann (1964); some Labeo specimens from Lake Turkana drainage housed in collections in the British natural history museum are doubtfully identified as L. niloticus (Forsskål, 1775), but most likely belong to the species L. horie; 57 cm TLLabeo aff. mesops Günther, 1868 Tana labeoTana drainage (middle and lower courses); the taxonomic status of the Tana population is uncertain; Reid (1985) lists this fish as Labeo mesops, a dubious identification; 39 cm TLLabeo percivali Boulenger, 1912 Ewaso Nyiro labeoNorthern Ewaso Nyiro; originally described from the Northern Ewaso Nyiro under the name Labeo percivali, which, according to Reid (1985), is a slender inland form of L. bottegi Vinciguerra, 1897 from the Juba system in Somalia; this is a doubtfull synonymy which we prefer not to follow here; 19 cm TLLabeo trigliceps Pellegrin, 1926 Nairobi labeoEndemic to the Athi River system; the taxonomic status of this species is uncertain; Reid (1985) suspects the types of Labeo trigliceps to be aberrant specimens of L. cylindricus; 49 cm TLLabeo victorianus Boulenger, 1901 (Fig. 8g) Victoria labeo "Ningu" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Endemic to Lake Victoria drainage; 32.5 cm TLLabeo spec. "Baomo" Red tail labeo "Kuwu", "Kuvu" (Pokomo)Possibly endemic to the lower Tana system; an undescribed species recently collected near BaomoLabeo spec. "Mzima" Mzima labeoMzima Springs (Tsavo River system); unidentified species under study.Leptocypris niloticus (De Joannis, 1835) (Fig. 8h) Nile minnowLake Turkana; also reported as Barilius niloticus (old binomen); 9.5 cm TLNeobola fluviatilis (Whitehead, 1962) Athi sardineGalana-Sabaki Rivers, Lower Tana; also recorded as Engraulicypris fluviatilis (old binomen); 7.3 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthNeobola stellae (Worthington, 1932) Lake Turkana minnowDistribution: endemic to Lake Turkana; also recorded as Engraulicypris stellae (old binomen); 2.3 cm SLRaiamas senegalensis (Steindachner, 1870) (Fig. 8i) Senegal minnowTurkwell drainage (Lake Turkana system); also reported from Lake Turkana basin as Raiamas loati (Boulenger, 1901), a junior synonym (see Lévêque & Bigorne, 1983); 24.5 cm TLRastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin, 1904) Lake Victoria sardine "Omena" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Dagaa" (Swahili, Lake Victoria)Endemic to Lake Victoria drainage; also recorded as Engraulicypris argenteus (old name); 8 cm TLDISTICHODIDAE-Distichodines (1 species)Distichodus niloticus (Linnaeus in Hasselquist, 1762) Nile distichodus "Gwolo", "Golo" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Gala" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; 83 cm TLCITHARINIDAE-Citharines (1 species)Citharinus citharus intermedius Worthington, 1932 Lake Turkana citharine "Gage", "Gej", "Agurt", "Gech" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Yoot" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; also reported as Citharinus citharis Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809; 58 cm SLALESTIDAE-African Characins (12 species)Alestes baremoze (De Joannis, 1835) Egyptian robber "Lelete", "Delete", "Juse", "Dorobela" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Nyele" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; 43 cm TLAlestes dentex (Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 7a) Nile robber "Lelete", "Delete", "Juse", "Dorobela" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Nyele" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; 55 cm TLBrycinus affinis (Günther, 1894) Redfin robber "Nkwakwa" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Eastward flowing coastal rivers including Galana-Sabaki and Tana River (lower courses); a record of Brycinus affinis from the upper reaches of the Athi system by Okeyo (1998) is unsubstantiated; also reported as Alestes affinis (old name); reported from Athi and Tana drainages as A. nurse by Copley (1941), a misidentification; 14.7 cm SLBrycinus ferox (Hopson & Hopson, 1982) Large-toothed Lake Turkana robberEndemic to Lake Turkana; also reported as Alestes ferox (old binomen); 81 mm SL.Brycinus jacksonii (Boulenger, 1912) Victoria robber "Osoga", "Soga" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Nsoga" (Luhya, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; also reported as Alestes jacksonii (old name); reported from Lake Victoria as A. nurse by Copley (1941), a misidentification; 27 cm SL.Brycinus minutus (Hopson & Hopson, 1982) Dwarf Lake Turkana robberEndemic to Lake Turkana; also reported as Alestes minutus (old name); 3.3 cm SLBrycinus nurse nana (Pellegrin, 1935) Turkana nurse tetraLake Turkana; also reported from Lake Turkana under the old name Alestes nurse (Rüppell, 1832); Lake Turkana specimens of this species are noticeably smaller (12 cm fork length (FL)) than specimens from other populations, which grow up to 218 mm SL; therefore, the Turkana population was described as a distinct subspecies; 12 cm FL.Species, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthBrycinus sadleri (Boulenger, 1906) (Fig. 7b) Sadler's robber "Osoga", "Soga" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Nsoga" (Luhya, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; also reported from Lake Victoria as Alestes nurse, a misidentification; 13,8 cm TLHydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier, 1819) Elongate tigerfish "Lokel" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Koris" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; also recorded from Lake Turkana as Hydrocyon forskahlii (erroneous generic name) and sometimes misspelled as H. forskali or H. forskalii; 78 cm SLHydrocynus vittatus (Castelnau, 1861) (Fig. 7c) Tigerfish "Lokel" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Koris" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana system; also reported from Lake Turkana as Hydrocyon lineatus Bleeker, 1863 (or Hydrocynus lineatus), a junior synonym; this species was reported from Lake Turkana by Worthington & Ricardo (1936); according to Hopson & Hopson (1982) in the Turkana basin this species is principally riverine and ecological changes in the lake have tended to inhibit incursions of H. vittatus into the lake; 70 cm SLMicralestes aff. elongatus Daget, 1957 Elongated Turkana robberLake Turkana; the taxonomic status of this Turkana population is unclear; previously also listed as Micralestes acutidens (Peters, 1852) by Hopson & Hopson (1982), a misidentification; 6 cm TLRhabdalestes tangensis (Lönnberg, 1907) Pangani robberPangani drainage; Rhabdalestes leleupi Poll, 1967 is a junior synonym of this species; also listed as Petersius tangensis Lönnberg, 1907 (old binomen); records of this species from the Tana basin are dubious and based on misidentifications; 6 cm SLBAGRIDAE-Bagrid Catfishes (3 species)Bagrus bajad (Forsskål, 1775) Black Nile catfish "Lorok", "Loruk", "Lorogo", "Lorongo" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Loruk" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; 72 cm SLBagrus docmak (Forsskål, 1775) Sudan catfish "'Lisi", "Loruk" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Lisi" (El Molo, Lake Turkana), "Sewu", "Seu" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Turkana, Lake Victoria basin; also reported as Bagrus degeni Boulenger, 1906, which, according to Greenwood (1966) is a junior synonym of B. docmak, often misspelled as B. docmac. A record of "B. docmac" from the Athi River by Copley (1941) most likely refers to B. urostigma; 110 cm TLBagrus urostigma Vinciguerra, 1895 Somalia catfishNorthern Ewaso Nyiro, Lower Tana; status uncertain; maybe identical with Bagrus orientalis Boulenger, 1902 from east coast rivers in Tanzania; a record of "B. docmac" from the Athi River by Copley (1941) probably refers to this species; 72 cm TLCLAROTEIDAE-Clarotid Catfishes (4 species)Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840) Giraffe catfish "Bulubulich", "Lokorikibon" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Tikir" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana system; 48 cm SLChrysichthys auratus (Geoffroy Saint- Hilaire, 1809) (Fig. 9) Golden Nile catfish "Lochakolong" (Turkana, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; 30 cm TLClarotes laticeps (Rüppell, 1829) Wideheaded catfish "Mpumi" (Pokomo, Lower Tana),Northern Ewaso Nyiro, Dawa River (Juba system), Galana- Sabaki, Tsavo drainage, Lower Tana; the taxonomic status of the Kenyan populations is uncertain and needs detailed study;Species, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known length"Pongwe" (Athi River), "Ngogo" (Giriama, Galana River)80 cm TLPardiglanis tarabinii Poll, Lanza & Sassi, 1972 Somalian giant catfish "Mpumi Hwahwa" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Lower Tana; previously only known from the Juba system in Somalia, this species was recently rediscovered in the Lower Tana (De Vos, 2001a); taxonomic status unclear; 87.6 cm TL, 75 cm SLSCHILBEIDAE-Butter Catfishes, Glass Catfishes (3 species)Parailia somalensis (Vinciguerra, 1897) Somalia glass catfish "Mpawa Rukanga" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Lower Tana River system; also reported as Physailia somalensis tanensis Whitehead, 1962, a junior synonym and as Physailia somalensis (old binomen); reported as Physailia sp. by Whitehead (1959); 6.9 cm TLSchilbe intermedius Rüppell, 1832 Silver catfish, Butter catfish "Mpawa" (Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Sire", "Rawa" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Kakonje" (Giriama, Galana River), "Kissengo" (Swahili)Galana-Sabaki, Lower Tana, Northern Ewaso Nyiro, Dawa River (Juba system), Lake Victoria drainage; populations from the Northern Ewaso Nyiro, the Juba system and the Galana-Sabaki and Tana Rivers consistently show a small adipose fin; specimens from the Victoria basin do not have an adipose; previously also reported under the name Schilbe mystus (Linnaeus, 1758), a misidentification, and as Eutropius depressirostris (Peters, 1852), a junior synonym (see De Vos, 1995); 60.5 cm TLSchilbe uranoscopus Rüppell, 1832 (Fig. 10) Egyptian butter catfish "Naili", "Nail" (Turkana, El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana, River Turkwell; 36 cm SLAMPHILIIDAE-Mountain Catfishes (3 species)Amphilius jacksonii Boulenger, 1912 Marbled mountain catfishLake Victoria drainage (affluent rivers); about 15 cm TLAmphilius uranoscopus (Pfeffer, 1889) (Fig. 11) Stargazer mountain catfishSouthern Ewaso Nyiro drainage (I. Payne, pers. comm.), Pangani drainage, Athi and Tana River systems, Lake Victoria basin (affluent rivers); also reported as Amphilius grandis Boulenger, 1905 and A. oxyrhinus Boulenger, 1912, both junior synonyms; 16.7 cm SL, 19.5 cm TLLeptoglanis aff. rotundiceps (Hilgendorf, 1905) Sand catletLake Victoria drainage (affluent rivers); the taxonomic status of the Victoria populations is unclear; records of Leptoglanis rotundiceps from the Tana River drainage are dubious (see Mann, 1967); 3.7 cm TLCLARIIDAE-Airbreathing catfishes (7 species)Clariallabes petricola Greenwood, 1956 Victoria snake catfishLake Victoria drainage; 8.4 cm SLClarias alluaudi Boulenger, 1906 Alluaud's catfish "Oludhe" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; doubtfully distinguished from Clarias werneri; 23 cm TLClarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Sharptooth catfish, Common catfish, Mudfish "Kopito" (Samburu, Northern Ewaso Nyiro), "Kopito", "Obito", "Singre" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Lokate" (El Molo, Lake Turkana), "Nisu" (Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Mumi", "Sombi", "Dera" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Ongala" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli), "Singri", "Singre" (Lake Baringo), "Kambali" (Swahili,Lake Victoria drainage, Lake Kanyaboli, Lake Turkana system, Suguta River, Lake Bogoria drainage, Lake Baringo system, eastward flowing river basins (Tana, Athi, ...), Northern and Southern Ewaso Nyiro Rivers, Dawa River (Juba system); previously also recorded as Clarias mossambicus Peters, 1852 and C. lazera Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840, both junior synonyms; erroneously reported from Lake Victoria under the name C. anguillaris by Copley (1941), a misidentification; 150 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthAthi River), "Macharufu" (Meru, Tana River system)Clarias liocephalus Boulenger, 1898 (Fig. 12a) Smoothhead catfish "Nduri" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria basin, Lake Kanyaboli; also found in Nairobi dam (Upper Athi River) where it was probably introduced; previously also reported as Clarias carsonii Boulenger, 1903, a junior synonym of C. liocephalus; Hilgendorf (1905) described C. neumanni from the Southern Ewaso Nyiro but it was noted by the collector of the types (O. Neumann) that the type locality of the species might be incorrect and that the types might originate from Lake Manyara system; Teugels (1986) synonymised C. neumanni with C. liocephalus without examining the types of C. neumanni; he eroneously reported that the types from this species are housed in the Nairobi Museum; records of C. liocephalus from the Southern Ewaso Nyiro (erroneously attributed to the Tana River drainage by Teugels, 1986) are based on wrong localities; 32 cm TLClarias werneri Boulenger, 1906 Werner's catfishLake Victoria basin; doubtfully distinguished from Clarias alluaudi; 23 cm TLHeterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840 (Fig. 12b) Vundu "Labe" (Turkana)Lake Turkana (north end); currently no specimens of this species in scientific collections from Lake Turkana, but local fishermen have confirmed the presence of the vundu in the northern part of the lake; 100 cm TLXenoclarias eupogon (Norman, 1928) Lake Victoria deepwater catfishEndemic to Lake Victoria drainage; also reported as Clarias eupogon (antiquated binomen) and as Xenoclarias holobranchus Greenwood, 1958 (junior synonym); Goudswaard & Witte (1997) report that this species may have become extinct due to predation by Nile perch and other recent ecological impacts; 20 cm SLMALAPTERURIDAE-Electric catfishes (1 species)Malapterurus electricus (Gmelin, 1789) (Fig. 13) Electric catfish "Lasali", "Losali" (Turkana, El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana, River Turkwell River; sometimes misspelled as Malopterurus electricus; Golubtsov & Berendzen (1999) reported the presence of two electric catfishes (Malapterurus electricus and M. minjiriya Sagua, 1987) in the Omo system, the only permanent tributary of Lake Turkana; consequently it needs confirmation which Malapterurus species occur(s) in Lake Turkana; 122 cm SLARIIDAE-Sea Catfishes (1 species)Arius africanus Playfair & Günther,1866 African sea catfishLower courses of Sabaki and Tana Rivers; coastal species, mostly in freshwater; 45 cm TLMOCHOKIDAE-Squeakers and Suckermouths (15 species)Chiloglanis brevibarbis Boulenger, 1902 Short barbelled suckermouthAthi and Tana River systems; Copley (1941) reported this species under the name Chiloglanis athiensis, a nomen nudum; status uncertain; very close to C. deckenii; the Kenyan Chiloglanis populations need detailed taxonomic study; 6.1 cm TLChiloglanis deckenii Peters, 1868 Pangani suckermouthPangani drainage; 5.0 cm TLChiloglanis spec. "Kerio" Kerio suckermouthKerio River system (Lake Turkana drainage); status uncertain; very close to Chiloglanis niloticus; the Kenyan Chiloglanis populations need detailed taxonomic studyChiloglanis spec. "Northern Ewaso Nyiro" Chanler Falls suckermouthNorthern Ewaso Nyiro (below Chanler Falls); status uncertain; very close to Chiloglanis niloticus; the Kenyan Chiloglanis populations need detailed taxonomic studySpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthChiloglanis somereni Whitehead, 1958 Someren's suckermouthLake Victoria drainage (affluent rivers); 10 cm SLMochokus niloticus De Joannis, 1835 Dwarf Nile catfishLake Turkana system; 6.5 cm TLSynodontis afrofischeri Hilgendorf, 1888 Marbled Victoria squeaker "Okoko" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; dubious records of Synodontis afrofischeri from the Tana and Athi Rivers are based on misidentifications of S. serpentis; 17.7 cm TLSynodontis frontosus Vaillant, 1895 Sudan squeaker "Lour kasicou" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Pua" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana system; according to Hopson & Hopson (1982) in the Turkana basin this species is principally riverine and ecological/hydrological changes in the lake currently have tended to inhibit incursions of Synodontis frontosus into the lake; 34.2 cm TLSynodontis geledensis Günther, 1896 Geledi squeakerNorthern Ewaso Nyiro; 30.7 cm TLSynodontis manni De Vos, 2001 Feather-barbelled squeaker "Njigu" (Pokomo, Lower Tana)Possibly endemic to the Lower Tana River; reported by Mann (1968) from the Lower Tana River as a closely related species to Synodontis clarias from West Africa (see De Vos, 2001b); 21.6 cm SL, 28.8 cm TLSynodontis schall (Schneider in Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Nile squeaker "Tirr" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Tikir" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; records of this species from the Athi and Tana Rivers (Copley, 1952; 1958; Mann, 1968) are misidentifications probably refering to Synodontis zanzibaricus; 43 cm TLSynodontis serpentis Whitehead, 1962 (Fig. 14) Tana squeaker "Ningo wa yuvu" (Pokomo, Lower Tana). "Kikorokoro" (Giriama, Lower Tana)Galana-Sabaki and lower Tana River systems; 12.4 cm TLSynodontis victoriae Boulenger, 1906 Lake Victoria squeaker "Okoko" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; records of Synodontis victoriae from the Tana River (Copley, 1941; Mann, 1966; 1968) are misidentifications and probably refer to S. zanzibaricus; 29 cm TLSynodontis zanzibaricus Peters, 1868 East coast squeaker "Ingorongo" (Samburu, North Ewaso Nyiro). "Ningo" (Pokomo, Lower Tana) "Kikorokoro" (Giriama, Lower Tana)Pangani drainage, Galana-Sabaki, Lower Tana River, Northern Ewaso Nyiro; taxonomic status uncertain; Synodontis punctulatus Günther, 1894 and S. leopardus Pfeffer, 1894, reported from Tanzania and Somalia, might be junior synonyms of this species (Seegers, 1996); also reported by Whitehead (1959, 1962) and Mann (1966, 1968) from the Tana and Northern Ewaso Nyiro Rivers as S. zambezensis Peters, 1852, a misidentification; 31.1 cm TLSynodontis spec. "Lower Tana" Ocellated Tana squeakerLower Tana drainage; one specimen of this undescribed Synodontis was collected by S. Engelhardt from the lower Tana drainage and exported to Germany; more specimens need to be collected for study.SALMONIDAE-Trouts (3 species)Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) Rainbow troutWell established and self-sustaining in streams all over the Aberdare Mountains, Mount Kenya and mount Elgon; first introduced into Kenya from South Africa and UK around 1910 for angling and aquaculture; native range: rivers and streams of the Pacific Ocean drainages of Northern Asia and North America; also reported under the synonymous names Salmo irideus Gibbons, 1855, and S. gairdneri (Richardson, 1936) and as Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), an old binomen; 120 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthSalmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 Brown troutWell established and self-sustaining in a few selected streams on the Aberdare mountains and mount Kenya, and also in the Maron River on the Cherengani Hills; Introduced on many occasions from UK for sport fishing since about 1910, but now largely replaced by rainbow trout; native range: Europe and Western Asia; also in Atlas mountains in North Africa; 29 cm TLSalvelinus fontinalis ? (Mitchill, 1815) Brook trout, American brook char(r), American brook trout, Speckled troutAccording to Welcomme (1988) this species was introduced in 1969 into Kenya from UK for sport fishing in the hope that it would breed in lakes with no inflowing stream; Copley (1953) mentions introduction of the species from UK in 1949, but reports that the importation in natural waters (Lake Höhnel on Mount Kenya) was a failure; unlikely that any still survive in Kenya; native range: Northeastern North America; 86 cm SLAPLOCHEILICHTHYIDAE-Topminnows or Lampeyes (6 species)Aplocheilichthys bukobanus (Ahl, 1924) (Fig. 15) Victoria lampeye "Mande" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria drainage, Lake Kanyaboli; Huber (1999) suggested to use the name Lacustricola bukobanus for this species; also reported as Aplocheilichthys meyburgi Meinken, 1971 and Micropanchax ericae Meinken, 1971 (junior synonyms of A. bukobanus); also reported as Cynopanchax bukobanus (old binomen); records from Lake Victoria drainage under the names Haplochilus pumilus Boulenger, 1906 or Aplocheilichthys pumilus are misidentifications; 5 cm TLAplocheilichthys jeanneli (Pellegrin, 1935) Omo lampeyeEndemic to Lake Turkana basin; also reported as Haplochilichthys jeanneli (old binomen); 3 cm TLAplocheilichthys rudolfianus (Worthington, 1932) Turkana lampeyeEndemic to Lake Turkana basin; also reported as Haplochilichthys rudolfianus (old binomen); 3 cm TLAplocheilichthys spec. "Baringo" Baringo lampeyeLake Baringo drainage (possibly endemic); the taxonomic status of this species is uncertain; it appears to be close to Aplocheilichthys maculatus Klausewitz, 1957 from the coastal area around Dar es Salaam in eastern Tanzania; this Baringo species is apparently declining and might be under threat of extinction due to competition with the introduced guppy (Poecilia reticulata); reported as A. aff. maculatus by Wildekamp (1995)Aplocheilichthys spec. "Naivasha" Naivasha lampeyeLake Naivasha; apparently extinct since the 1970s or 1980s due to competition or predation by introduced fishes; status uncertain: the Naivasha lampeye has been reported under the names Haplochilichthys antinorii and Aplocheilichthys antinorii (Vinciguerra, 1883) but differs from this species.Pantanodon stuhlmanni (Ahl, 1924) Eastcoast lampeyeLower reaches of rivers and brooks of the eastcoast drainage close to the sea, including salt pans; also reported as Pantanodon podoxys Myers, 1955, a junior synonym according to Seegers (1996); also recorded under the old name Aplocheilichthys stuhlmanni; 1.8 cm TLAPLOCHEILIDAE-Annual killifishes (12 species)Nothobranchius bojiensis Wildekamp & Haas, 1992 Boji Plains nothobranchEndemic to Northern Uwaso Nyiro drainage where it is found in seasonal waters of the Boji plains, northeast of Merti; 4.9 cm SLNothobranchius elongatus Wildekamp, 1982 Elongate nothobranchSeasonal waters of the southeastern coastal drainage, to the north west of Mombasa near Kaloleni; 5.5 cm TLNothobranchius interruptus Wildekamp & Berkenkamp, 1979 Kikambala nothobranchSeasonal pools and waters of the southeastern coastal drainage near Kikambala, about 15 km north of Mombasa; 6.5 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthNothobranchius jubbi Wildekamp & Berkenkamp, 1979 Blue nothobranchSeasonal pools northwards of Malindi and in the lower Tana drainage; Nothobranchius cyaneus Seegers, 1981 from eastern Kenya is considered as a synonym of N. jubbi; a record of N. guentheri (Pfeffer, 1893) from the Tana River by Mann (1968) most likely is a misidentification for N. jubbi since N. guentheri is confined to Zanzibar island; 6 cm TLNothobranchius melanospilus (Pfeffer, 1896) Blackspotted nothobranchSeasonal ponds and waters of the southeastern coastal area of Kenya, Umba and northwards to the Ramisi drainage; 7 cm TLNothobranchius microlepis (Vinciguerra, 1897) Small scaled nothobranchSeasonal pools of the lower to middle Tana drainage; 8 cm TLNothobranchius palmqvisti (Lönnberg, 1907) Pangani nothobranchSeasonal ponds and waters of the southeastern coastal area of Kenya, Umba and northwards to the Ramisi drainage; 5 cm TLNothobranchius patrizii (Vinciguerra, 1927) Somali nothobranchSeasonal pools of the lower Tana; 5 cm TLNothobranchius robustus Ahl, 1935 Red Victoria nothobranchSeasonal pools of the Lake Victoria drainage, near Ahero and in the Sio River floodplain near Busia; 5.5 cm TLNothobranchius ugandensis Wildekamp, 1994 Uganda nothobranchSeasonal pools in the Sio River floodplain near Busia; Wildekamp (1994) attributes a population from seasonal pools of the lower Sio River near Busia to this species; a record of Nothobranchius taeniopygus Hilgendorf, 1891 by Wourms (1965) refers to this species; 5 cm TLNothobranchius willerti Wildekamp, 1992 Mnanzini nothobranchLower Tana River system in the coastal plains of eastern Kenya; 4 cm TLNothobranchius spec. "Lake Victoria" Blue Victoria nothobranchSeasonal pools near Lake Victoria between Ahero and Kisumu; taxonomic status uncertainPOECILIIDAE-Livebearers (2 species)Gambusia affinis holbrooki (Girard, 1859) Eastern mosquito fishAthi and Tana river systems, Lake Victoria drainage (affluent rivers); maybe also in Lake Naivasha where Muchiri & Hickley (1991) reported the establishment of a Gambusia sp. (presumably G. affinis) before 1977; Introduced for mosquito control in Kenya probably in the early sixties (Mann, 1966); native range: North America in the Atlantic drainage and on peninsular Florida as far west as Alabama; reported as G. affinis from the Sondu Miriu River system (Lake Victoria drainage) by Mugo & Tweddle (1999); also reported valid as G. holbrooki in FishBase (Froese & Pauly, 2000); 3.5 cm TLPoecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 Guppy, Million fishIntroduced in many waters in Kenya: Athi and Tana river systems, Lake Baringo, Upper Pangani drainage (including Lake Jipe), Lake Naivasha, Northern Ewaso Nyiro, Lake Victoria drainage; according to Welcomme (1988) introduced in 1950 from Uganda to Kenya for mosquito control; Lever (1996) reports the year 1956 as time of introduction; probably also introduced by aquarists; also reported as Lebistes reticulatus (antiquated name); native range: West Indies and northern South America from western Venezuela to Guyana; the guppy may be the cause of decline of several indigenous lampeyes probably because of competition; 3.5 cm TLSYNGNATHIDAE-Pipefishes (2 species)Hippichthys (Hippichthys) spicifer (Rüppell, 1838)Bellybarred pipefish, Blue spotted pipefishCoastal species; enters lower reaches of rivers. Lower Sabaki (Whitehead, 1960); 17 cm SLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthMicrophis (Belonichthys) fluviatilis (Peters, 1852) Freshwater pipefishCoastal species; enters lower reaches of rivers. Lower Sabaki (Whitehead, 1960); 20 cm SLMASTACEMBELIDAE-Spinyeels (1 species)Mastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger, 1901) (Fig. 16) Longtail spinyeel "Okunga" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage; records by Copley (1952; 1958) from the Athi River system might refer to this species; most likely there are no mastacembelids in the Tana system despite records by Copley (1952; 1958); also reported under the generic names Caecomastacembelus and Afromastacembelus; here included in Mastacembelus (Vreven, work in progress); also reported as Mastacembelus victoriae Boulenger, 1903, a junior synonym; the taxonomic status of mastacembelids from the Athi River drainage needs investigation; 33 cm TLCENTROPOMIDAE-Nile perches (2 species)Lates (Lates) longispinis Worthington, 1929 Turkana perch "Iji" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Jinte" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Endemic to Lake Turkana; taxonomic status uncertain; previously also reported as Lates niloticus longispinis; 27.5 cm TLLates (Lates) niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 17) Nile perch "Iji", "Idji" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Jinte" (El Molo, Lake Turkana), "Mbuta" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Mputa" (Luhya, Lake Victoria)Lake Turkana; introduced into Lake Victoria; the taxonomic status of the Lake Victoria populations is uncertain; Lates was introduced to Lake Victoria in the late 1950s and early 1960s (Coulter et al., 1986) from the shallow waters of Lake Albert and Lake Turkana (Gee, 1969); although not necessarily conspecific with L. niloticus, the Lake Victoria Lates have always been referred to as L. niloticus; according to Hartley (1984) an unpublished introduction of L. niloticus took place in Lake Naivasha in the early 1970s and since the early 1980's several perch have been caught; no information available as to its present status but probably the species did not establish in the lake; Mann (1966) reports the appearance of L. niloticus escaped from Sagana Fish Culture Farm into the Middle Tana after exceptional floods at the end of 1961; apparently the species has not established in the Tana; previously Turkana populations of Nile Perch have been recorded as Lates niloticus rudolfianus Worthington, 1932; 180 cm TLAMBASSIDAE-Glassies (1 species)Ambassis gymnocephalus (La Cepède, 1802) Bald glassy "Dodosi" (Digo, South Coast)Coastal species; enters lower parts of rivers; Ramisi and Umba Rivers; 16 cm TLTERAPONIDAE-Thornfishes (1 species)Terapon jarbua (Forsskål, 1775) ThornfishCoastal and mangrove species; entering lower parts of rivers; 30 cm SLLUTJANIDAE-Snappers (1 species)Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål, 1775) River snapper "Unga" (Digo, South Coast)Coast; enters lower parts of coastal rivers (e.g. Ramisi River)CICHLIDAE-Cichlids (28 species)Alcolapia alcalicus (Hilgendorf, 1905) Natron tilapiaLake Natron drainage, Shombole swamps; previously also reported as Tilapia alcalica and Oreochromis (Alcolapia) alcalica alcalica; specific rank according to Seegers & Tichy (1999); 7.7 cm SLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthAlcolapia grahami (Boulenger, 1912) Lake Magadi tilapiaLake Magadi. Introduced in Lake Nakuru in 1953, 1959 and 1962 (Vareschi, 1979); possibly also introduced in Lake Elmenteita; also reported under the old names T. grahami and Oreochromis (Alcolapia) alcalicus grahami; specific rank according to Seegers & Tichy (1999); reported as Tilapia mossambica (non Peters, 1852) by Woodhouse (1912), a misidentification; 12.7 cm SLAstatoreochromis alluaudi (Pellegrin, 1904) (Fig. 18a) Alluaud's haplo "Hamaga" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria drainage, Lake Kanyaboli. Introduced into waters near Nairobi (upper Athi system); 16.3 cm SLCtenochromis pectoralis Pfeffer, 1893 Lake Chala haploPangani drainage (including lake Jipe),Tsavo basin (Mzima Springs); the status of the population of Mzima Springs is uncertain. It might be distinct from Ctenochromis pectoralis known from the Pangani drainage; 6.3 cm TLHaplochromis aff. Bloyeti (Sauvage, 1883) Bloyet's haploPangani drainage (including Lake Jipe); taxonomic status uncertain; 6.1 cm SLHaplochromis (Thoracochromis) macconneli Greenwood, 1974 McConnel's haploEndemic to Lake Turkana; 7.7 cm SLHaplochromis (Astatotilapia) nubilus (Boulenger, 1906) Blue Victoria mouthbrooder "Furu", "Fulu" (Luo, Swahili, Lake Victoria)Endemic to Lake Victoria system (both lake and rivers); 8.6 cm SLHaplochromis (Thoracochromis) rudolfianus Trewavas, 1933 Lake Rudolf haploEndemic to Lake Turkana; 5.8 cm SLHaplochromis (Thoracochromis) turkanae Greenwood, 1974 Turkana haploEndemic to Lake Turkana; 8.6 cm SLHaplochromis spec. "Amboseli" Amboseli haploAmboseli swamps; undescribed species under studyHaplochromis spec. "Chala" Pangani haploLake Chala (Pangani drainage); taxonomic status uncertain; according to local fishermen from Lake Chala, this haplochromine species was introduced in the crater lake in the 1970s together with tilapiine species; those introduced species probably originated from Lake Babati (South of Lake Manyara) in TanzaniaHaplochromis spec. "Migori" Migori haploMigori River (endemic to Lake Victoria drainage); undescribed species under studyHemichromis exsul (Trewavas, 1933) Turkana jewel cichlidLake Turkana; listed as Hemichromis bimaculatus Gill, 1862 by Trewavas (1973) and by Hopson & Hopson (1982) and as H. letourneuxi by Loiselle (1979); according to Seegers (1998) the Lake Turkana population probably is a distinct species endemic to the lake; previously also reported under the antiquated binomen Pelmatochromis exsul; 10 cm SLOreochromis andersonii ? (Castelnau, 1861) Three-spotted tilapiaUnknown if established in natural waters; introduced in Kenya in 1980 from Botswana (Motiti Pan, an extension of the Okavango drainage) by I. Parker for aquaculture purposes; about a thousand juvenile tilapiines (which later proved to be a mixture of Oreochromis andersonii, O. macrochir and Tilapia rendalli) were introduced in a dam at Nairobi; it is possible some specimens found their way from the dam to Nairobi River system; 34.4 cm SLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthOreochromis esculentus (Graham, 1928) Graham's tilapia "Ngege" (Swahili, Luhya, Luo), "Osamo" (Luo, Lake Victoria), "Dwela" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria drainage, Lake Kanyaboli; introduced into several dams and waters, including the Pangani system (Lake Jipe); currently the species seems under threat of extinction in the Lake Victoria drainage; previously also reported as Tilapia esculenta (antiquated binomen); 25.3 cm SLOreochromis hunteri Günther, 1889 Lake Chala tilapiaEndemic to Lake Chala; also reported as Tilapia hunteri and T. (Oreochromis) hunteri (old names); 25.3 cm SLOreochromis jipe (Lowe-McConnell, 1955) Jipe tilapiaPangani drainage (including lake Jipe); previously also reported as Tilapia jipe, T. (Sarotherodon) jipe, T. (Oreochromis) jipe and S. jipe (antiquated names); the nominal species Tilapia girigan Lowe-McConnell, 1955 and T. pangani Lowe- McConnell, 1955 (as well as the subspecies Oreochromis pangani pangani and O. pangani girigan) are likely to be junior synonyms of O. jipe and considered as such here; 34.5 cm SLOreochromis korogwe (Lowe-McConnell, 1955) Korogwe tilapiaPangani drainage; maybe also in Lake Chala; this species is known from the Pangani River in Tanzania and might also be present in the Kenyan part of the system; possibly introduced in Lake Chala but identifications of Oreochromis korogwe from this lake need confirmation; 16.1 cm SLOreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) Blue spotted tilapia "Odede" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria basin, Lake Kanyaboli, Lake Naivasha, some dams in the country (introduced); according to Welcomme (1967, 1988) and Lever (1996) this species was introduced in 1953 or 1954 from Lake Albert (Uganda) into Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria; it has also established in Lake Naivasha; also reported as Tilapia leucosticta (antiquated name); 32 cm TLOreochromis mossambicus (Peters,1852) Mozambique tilapia "Para Para" (Digo, South Coast)In more or less brackish water of the lower course of the Ramisi River (South Coast); status uncertain, most likely introduced; 28 cm SL, 35 cm TL.Oreochromis macrochir ? (Boulenger, 1912) Longfin tilapiaUnknown if established in natural waters; can be found in ponds according to Lever (1996); according to Welcomme (1988) and Lever (1996) this species was introduced into Kenya from Zambia probably in 1955 for aquaculture and started reproducing in ponds; culture has been abandonded; 27.1 cmOreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Nile tilapia (Fig. 18b) "Ngege"(Swahili, Luhya, Luo, Lake Victoria and Lake Kanyaboli) "Nyamami" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Lake Victoria drainage, Lake Kanyaboli (introduced); Welcomme (1967) reports introductions of this species in Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria in 1957; the introduced strain possibly belongs to the subspecies Oreochromis niloticus eduardianus (Boulenger, 1912); also reported as Tilapia nilotica (antiquated name); a record of T. nilotica from the Northern Ewaso Nyiro by Copley (1941) was not discussed in Trewavas (1983), but probably refers to a misidentification for O. spilurus spilurus; 39.5 cm SLOreochromis niloticus baringoensis Trewavas, 1983 Baringo tilapia "Sopore", "Sibore" (Lake Baringo)Endemic to Lake Baringo drainage and hot springs near Lake Bogoria (next to Lake Bogoria Lodge); previously also reported as Tilapia nilotica; 24.6 cm SLOreochromis niloticus sugutae Trewavas, 1983 Suguta tilapiaEndemic to Suguta River system; 17.1 cm SLOreochromis niloticus vulcani (Trewavas, 1933) Turkana tilapia "Kokine", "Rogene" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Sigir orok (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Endemic to Lake Turkana drainage; previously also reported as Tilapia vulcani and T. nilotica (old names); used for aquaculture purposes at Sagana fish farm (upper Tana River drainage); 25.6 cm SLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthOreochromis spilurus niger (Günther, 1894) Athi River tilapia "Ngege" (Athi River, Meru Tana River system), "Pali" (Athi River), "Kiparapara", "Kina" (Athi River)Natural distribution: the Athi River and its tributaries above Lugard's Falls, upper tributaries of the Tana River; introduced in many dams and river systems; according to Trewavas (1983), in Kenya in the 1930s, the areas of Oreochromis spilurus spilurus and O. s. niger were fairly well-marked, although stocking had been going on since the 1920s; it is now difficult to find a stream in which a pure population of O. spilurus niger exists without admixture of O. spilurus spilurus; introduced in Lake Naivasha in 1926 where it now has disappeared probably due to competition with the more recently introduced tilapiines; also introduced in Lake Nakuru (which later dried up temporarily which made the species disappear there); also reported as O. niger, Tilapia nigra, T. spilurus nigra, T. nigra nigra, T. nilotica var. athiensis Boulenger, 1916, T. athiensis Hubbs, 1918, O. athiensis (junior synonyms) and as T. browni (non Nichols, 1923); for more details see Trewavas (1983); 29 cm SLOreochromis spilurus percivali (Boulenger, 1912) Buffalo Springs tilapiaHot springs in the upper Northern Ewaso Nyiro above Chanler's Falls; taxonomic status uncertain; also reported as Tilapia percivali; 12.7 cm SLOreochromis spilurus spilurus (Günther, 1894) Sabaki tilapia "Ntuku" (Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Kiparapara" (Giriama, Lower Tana), "Para Para" (Digo, South Coast)Coastal rivers of Kenya from the Mwena River near the Tanzania border to the Sabaki-Galana below Lugard's Falls; pools and lakes in the Athi flood-plain and coastal lagoons near its mouth, including the warm and saline Lake Chem Chem; Lower and Middle Tana, Northern Ewaso Nyiro; introduced in many dams and river systems (including Lake Kamnarok, Kerio drainage, Lake Turkana system); records from the Southern Ewaso Nyiro system (see Trewavas, 1983) are unsubstantiated: the species does not occur in this system; originally described as Chromis spilurus; also reported as Tilapia spilurus spilurus, T. nigra spilurus and T. nyirica Lönnberg, 1911 (synonyms); records of T. mossambica by Copley (1958) and Whitehead (1962) are misidentifications for O. spilurus; see Trewavas (1983) for more details; 19.2 cm SLOreochromis variabilis (Boulenger, 1906) Victoria tilapia "Mbiru" (Luo, Lake Victoria)Endemic to Lake Victoria drainage; also reported as Tilapia variabilis (antiquated name); this species is strongly declining or has disappeared in many areas of the Lake Victoria drainage; 26.7 cm SLPseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae Seegers, 1990 (Fig. 18c) Dwarf Victoria mouthbrooder "Ajuoga" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria basin, Lake Kanyaboli; introduced into the upper Athi and upper Tana systems; 7.7 cm TLSarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus (Linnaeus, 1758) Galilaea tilapia "Kokine", "Nanyang" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Yerigo" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; previously also reported as Tilapia galilaea and as Sarotherodon galilaeus; sometimes misspelled as T. galileae; 34 cm SLTilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1896) Redbreast tilapiaIntroduced in Lake Victoria; also introduced elsewhere in the country and now present in many water systems and dams all over the country, e.g. Pangani drainage (including Lake Jipe), Lake Chala and Athi/Sabaki drainage; also introduced in the Tana River system (Mann, 1966; 1968); according to Welcomme (1988) and Lever (1996) introduced from an unrecorded source into Kenya in 1955 for stocking; native range: West and Central Africa; also reported as Tilapia melanopleura Boulenger, 1911, a junior synonym; 25 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthTilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848) Redbelly tilapia "Kokine", "Loroto" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Kido" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana (natural); introduced into Lake Victoria system, Lake Naivasha and Tana River; according to Welcomme (1967, 1988) introduced in 1953-1955 from Lake Albert into Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria to fill a vacant niche; introduced into Lake Naivasha in 1955; Mann (1968) reported established 'wild' populations of Tilapia zillii in the Tana River; 30.5 cm TLMUGILIDAE-Mullets (2 species)Liza macrolepis (Smith, 1849) Large-scale mullet "Kampango" (Giriama, Galana River),Marine species; enters lower courses of eastward flowing rivers; Lower Sabaki-Galana; 60 cm SLValamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1853 Bluetail mulletCoast; ascending rivers; Lower Sabaki-Galana; 100 cm TLCENTRARCHIDAE-Sunfishes and Freshwater Basses (3 species)Lepomis cyanellus ? Rafinesque 1819 Green sunfishUnsuccessful introduction; according to Lever (1996) not established in natural waters; native range: east central North America; according to Welcomme (1988) introduced into Kenya from U.S.A. 31 cm TLLepomis macrochirus ? Rafinesque, 1819 BluegillAccording to Welcomme (1988) introduced into Kenya from U.S.A.; introduced into some dams but also reported from Tana river system after introduction (Mann, 1968); unsuccessful introduction in Kenya: bluegills apparently failed to establish viable populations in natural waters (Lever, 1996); native range: eastern and central North America from the Great Lakes including the Mississippi drainage southwards to the Rio Grande drainage in northeastern Mexico; 41 cm TLMicropterus salmoides (La Cepède, 1802) Largemouth bass, Black bass, Green bassVarious natural and artificial still waters and dams, Lake Naivasha (introduced); recently probably also established in affluent rivers of Lake Victoria (Ochumba & Manyala, 1992); Welcomme (1988) reports introduction in 1929 into Kenya from U.S.A. for angling; according to Lever (1996) the introduced stock came from Europe; Copley (1941) reports the year 1928 for introduction in Lake Naivasha; according to Mann (1966), this species escaped from ponds at Sagana fish farm during the exceptionally high floods of end 1961 into the middle Tana; the species probably did not establish in the Tana River; native range: east and southern U.S.A. and North Mexico; 97 cm TLELEOTRIDAE-Sleepers (1 species)Eleotris fusca (Schneider in Bloch & Schneider, 1801) (Fig. 19) Dusky sleeper, Brown gudgeon "Vumbika" (Digo, South Coast)Coast; entering brackish and fresh water of eastward flowing rivers; Tana, Sabaki and Ramisi Rivers (lower parts); 26 cm TLGOBIIDAE-Gobies (4 species)Awaous aeneofuscus (Peters, 1852) Freshwater gobyEnters lower reaches of eastward flowing rivers; Lower Tana, Sabaki-Galana; also in Mzima Springs (Tsavo system); also reported as Gobius (Awaous) aeneofuscus (antiquated name); 26 cm SLGlossogobius giuris (Hamilton, 1822) Tank goby, Bar-eyed goby, Flathead goby "Chokole" (Pokomo, Lower Tana), "Jumburu" (Giriama, Lower Tana), "Kijumburu" (Giriama, Galana River)Tana and Sabaki-Galana drainages (lower reaches); also in lower courses of smaller eastward flowing rivers; 42 cm TLOligolepis acutipennis (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1837) Sharptail gobyCoast; entering estuaries and lagoons (Maugé, 1986); Lower Sabaki drainage; 15 cm TLSpecies, common and local namesDistribution in Kenya, annotations and maximum known lengthStenogobius kenyae Smith, 1959 East African rivergoby, African rivergobySabaki-Galana (lower reaches); 12 cm TLANABANTIDAE-Labyrinth fishes (2 species)Ctenopoma muriei (Boulenger, 1906) (Fig. 20)Ocellated labyrinth fish "Sia" (Luo, Lake Kanyaboli)Lake Victoria drainage (swamps), Lake Kanyaboli; also reported as Anabas muriei (old name); 10 cm TLCtenopoma spec. "Ochumbae" Ochumba's labyrinth fishLake Victoria drainage (swamps); a small Ctenopoma currently under description (L. Kaufman et al., work in progress)TETRAODONTIDAE-Puffers (1 species)Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus, 1758 Nile puffer "Lokwi" (Turkana, Lake Turkana), "Tuwate" (El Molo, Lake Turkana)Lake Turkana; also reported as Tetraodon fahaka Rüppell, 1829, an objective synonym of T. lineatus; 43 cm TL

Lothar Seegers, Luc De Vos, and Daniel O. Okeyo "Annotated Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Kenya (excluding the lacustrine haplochromines from Lake Victoria)," Journal of East African Natural History 92(1), 11-47, (1 January 2003). https://doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(2003)92[11:ACOTFF]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 January 2003
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