Leaf extracts of the walnut, Juglans regia L., were evaluated under laboratory conditions to determine their acaricidal activity on the mites Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) and Tetranychus viennensis Zacher (Acari: Tetranychidae). Extracts had both contact and systemic toxicity to these mites. The four solvents tested for preparing crude extracts were petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Methanol was the most efficient solvent, with an extraction rate from 17.06 ± 0.80 to 20.27 ± 0.28%. Petroleum ether was the least effective solvent, with extraction rates from 2.30 ± 0.13 to 2.71 ± 0.13%. However, the crude extracts with petroleum ether resulted in the highest mite mortality (79.04 ± 0.52%) in a slide dip bioassay. Mites mortalities from the concentrated extracts prepared by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, or distilled water were significantly lower than petroleum ether. The mean lethal concentrations (LC50) of the extracts from petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and distilled water to the two mite species were 0.73 ± 0.04, 1.66 ± 0.28, 4.96 ± 0.35, 7.45 ± 0.67, and 9.91 ± 0.32 mg/ml, respectively. After liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, the concentrated extracts of petroleum ether were separated into eight fractions and tested for acaricidal activity. Fraction 6 produced significantly higher mite mortality rates than the other groups, killing ≈90% of both species.
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Vol. 100 • No. 4