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1 August 2007 Development and Evaluation of an Emulsified Paraffin Wax Dispenser for Season-Long Mating Disruption of Grapholita molesta in Commercial Peach Orchards
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Abstract

The University of California at Davis patented the use of emulsified wax to release pheromones for mating disruption. Advantages of these dispensers include low cost, self-adhesion, and biodegradation. We compared the efficacy and practicality of Confuse-OFM, a commercial emulsified wax formulation of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), pheromone with those of CheckMate OFM-F sprayable pheromone and Isomate-M 100 polyethylene tube dispensers in commercial peach (Prunus spp.) orchards. Efficacy was measured with male captures in pheromone-, virgin female-, and liquid attractant-baited bucket traps as well as by noting injury to shoots and fruit. Two applications of Confuse-OFM were as effective as two applications of CheckMate OFM-F and one application of Isomate-M 100. However, Confuse-OFM was tedious to apply and wasted pheromone with an initially high release rate. We developed a new emulsified wax formulation (Wax Dollops) that maintained release rates above a 5 mg/ha/h threshold twice as long as Confuse-OFM in the laboratory. Field trials confirmed that one application of 3-ml dollops (590 dollops per ha) provided season-long (≈15 wk) control equivalent to that of Isomate-M 100 and Confuse-OFM applied as described above. Several applicators were developed for Wax Dollops, including a pneumatic gun that shot dollops >2 m. However, the most efficient method for application was wiping dollops onto tree branches by using a flat-bladed spatula. This research was the basis for a new line of commercial pheromone pest control products equally effective to current commercial formulations but with advantages in cost and flexibility.

Frédérique M. De Lame, James R. Miller, Cynthia A. Atterholt, and Larry J. Gut "Development and Evaluation of an Emulsified Paraffin Wax Dispenser for Season-Long Mating Disruption of Grapholita molesta in Commercial Peach Orchards," Journal of Economic Entomology 100(4), 1316-1327, (1 August 2007). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[1316:DAEOAE]2.0.CO;2
Received: 19 September 2006; Accepted: 4 March 2007; Published: 1 August 2007
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