Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed [Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 × 10−3 mg/l air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 × 10−3 mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 × 10−3 mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 × 10−3 mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated.
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Vol. 101 • No. 1