Bioassays (at generation G1) with a newly collected field population of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Multan, Pakistan, showed resistance ratios of 15, 23, 37, and 16 for indoxacarb, spinosad, abamectin, and emamectin, respectively, compared with a laboratory susceptible population, Lab-PK. At G1, the field population was selected with indoxacarb by using single pair crosses. For Indoxa-SEL, bioassay at G4 found that selection increased resistance ratio to 95 for indoxacarb compared with Lab-PK. Selection with indoxacarb significantly increased resistance to spinosad and emamectin; however, resistance to abamectin was observed to drop. A significant reduction in the resistance to indoxacarb was observed in Indoxa-SEL at G9, indicating unstable resistance to indoxacarb; however, it was stable for fipronil. Synergism tests with microsomal oxidase and esterase-specific inhibitors suggested that the indoxacarb resistance was associated with microsomal oxidase. Reciprocal genetic crosses between Indoxa-SEL and Lab-PK populations indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely dominant. Tests of monogenic inheritance suggested that resistance to indoxacarb was controlled by more than one locus.
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Vol. 101 • No. 2