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1 October 2009 Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa as Ultraviolet Radiation Protectants for the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus
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Abstract

The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory conditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5% provided 85–100% UV protection, whereas cocoa provided 50% UV protection. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, and caffeine, a component of tea and coffee, also were tested as UV protectants. Both compounds were ineffective when tested alone. When EGCG and caffeine were combined, UV protection increased in a synergistic manner, but <35% of the original virus activity was maintained. This study demonstrated that coffee was comparable to green tea and black tea as a UV protectant. Further studies should be conducted to optimize their use in biopesticide formulations.

S. El-Salamouny, D. Ranwala, M. Shapiro, B. M. Shepard, and Robert R. Farrar "Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa as Ultraviolet Radiation Protectants for the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus," Journal of Economic Entomology 102(5), 1767-1773, (1 October 2009). https://doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0506
Received: 10 April 2009; Accepted: 1 July 2009; Published: 1 October 2009
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