Many pest repellents are in household use, and a variety of procedures, indices, and statistical tests have been used to examine their effectiveness. However, the effect of action mechanism on these indices has not been adequately discussed. In addition, the interreplication variance of data have not been taken into account in some cases. This study considered the validity of tests used to evaluate repellents and proposed methods to statistically evaluate them. First, various repellents with different mechanisms of action were virtually assumed, and their repelling processes were formulated as differential equations. Numerical and analytical analyses of the formulae revealed that, in some action mechanisms, the indices could be altered by parameters other than the repellent effect and that the indices should be used only for repellents of a specific mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of an actual repellent, by using two different experimental designs and the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were evaluated. This demonstrated that the evaluated effectiveness could vary with experimental design and suggested that the design should reflect the situation in which repellents are actually used. Therefore, statistical methods to quantify the effectiveness of repellents are proposed herein and applied to the results of the above-mentioned experiments. Particular emphasis was placed on the importance of incorporating the interreplication variance in statistical models and estimating confidence intervals. Finally, the validity and limitations of evaluation using indices of repellents' effects, and the identification of important criteria that should be considered when assessing the effects of repellents also are discussed.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 102 • No. 5