Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1°C (160°F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaireinfested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46°C (114.8°F) for 30 min, 46°C (114.8°F) for 60 min, 56°C (132.8°F) for 30 min, and 56°C (132.8°F) for 60 min, Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56°C (132.8 F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46°C (114.8°F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56°C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.
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Vol. 103 • No. 3