Field-based bioassays and residue profile analysis were used to determine the relative toxicity, rainfastness, and field degradation over time of five insecticides from five insecticide classes on adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in grapes, Vitis labrusca L. Bioassays assessed Japanese beetle condition as alive, knockdown, or immobile when exposed for 24 h or 7-d field-aged residues of phosmet, carbaryl, bifenthrin, thiamethoxam, or indoxacarb after 0, 12.7, or 25.4 mm of rain had been simulated. We found that the two most toxic insecticides to Japanese beetle were phosmet and carbaryl, followed by bifenthrin, thiamethoxam, and then indoxacarb. The efficacy of phosmet decreased because of rainfall, but not because of field aging. The efficacy of carbaryl decreased because of rainfall and field aging. The efficacies of bifenthrin and thiamethoxam were not affected by rainfall but decreased because of field aging. The efficacy of indoxacarb was not affected by rainfall or field aging. This study will help vineyard managers make informed decisions on when reapplications of insecticides are needed with the aim of improving integrated pest management programs.
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Vol. 104 • No. 5