By using a no-choice feeding bioassay, delayed toxicity and concentration-dependent mortality of two chitinolytic enzyme inhibitors, pentoxifylline and psammaplin A, were evaluated by determining LT50, LT90, and LT99 (lethal time) against the economically important eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Pentoxifylline- and psammaplin A-incorporated diets (filter paper) were assayed at 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.21% and 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, and 0.3% active ingredient (wt:wt), respectively. Acetone-only treated filter paper served as diet for the control treatments. Termite workers were allowed to feed on diet until 100% test population mortality occurred (80–95 d). Both chitinase inhibitors were shown to be toxic to R. flavipes. Concentrationdependent toxicity occurred within the pentoxifylline treatments over the range of 0.01–0.08%, with 0.08% treatments producing an LT50 of 32.2 d. However, mortality in response to psammaplin A treatments lacked concentration-dependent toxicity. Treatment with 0.3% psammaplin A produced an LT50 of 21.3 d. Mortality in response to lower psammaplin A treatments displayed no concentration-dependent trends. This study provides the first report on delayed toxicity of chitinolytic enzyme inhibitors against eastern subterranean termites (order Isoptera) and toxicological data on pentoxifylline and psammaplin A over a range of concentrations.
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Vol. 106 • No. 4