One of the most important factors for the success of a mass trapping strategy to control a fruit fly involves the selection of an effective trap—lure combination. Because different species of fruit flies respond differently to the physical characteristics of a trap and to bait volatiles, the evaluation of commercial traps and lures that have proved useful against other tephtrids is necessary to determine their efficacy for mass trapping of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Under caged conditions, a commercial hemispherical trap with lateral holes (Maxitrap Plus) proved more attractive to A. ludens (both sexes) than five other commercial traps that were all baited with hydrolyzed protein. Among these traps, bottom invaginated traps and traps with invaginated lateral holes constructed with transparent cylinders had the best physical retention properties. When evaluated under field conditions, the lure was critical for the efficacy of the trap, and one of the traps that performed poorly in attraction and retention cage tests (MS2) resulted as one of the most effective traps when baited with CeraTrap lure. Considering the use of different trap models under field conditions, CeraTrap liquid bait was more effective in A. ludens capture than Biolure dry synthetic bait, but both lures were not replaced during the entire course of the experiment. The percentage of captured females was also slightly higher using CeraTrap lure (67.2%) than using Biolure baits (54.5–58.8%). In field tests, 75–81% of females were mated and no significant differences were observed among trap—lure combinations. Trap selectivity against nontarget adult lacewings also differed among trap—lure combinations.
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