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1 February 2015 Organophosphate Resistance and Its Main Mechanism in Populations of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)from Central Chile
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The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of apple production worldwide. Insecticide resistance has been reported in all producing countries, based on five different mechanisms. Codling moth in Chile has resistance to azinphos-methyl and tebufenozide in post-diapausing larvae. However, there are no studies about the susceptibility of these populations to insecticides from other chemical groups. Therefore, the efficacy of azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, esfenvalerate, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and thiacloprid on neonate and post-diapausing larvae from six field populations was investigated, and identified resistance mechanisms in this species were evaluated. Neonate larvae were susceptible to all insecticides studied, but post-diapausing larvae from four populations were resistant to chlorpyrifos, one of them was also resistant to azinphos-methyl, and another one was resistant to tebufenozide. The acetylcholinesterase insensitivity mutation was not detected, and the sodium channel knockdown resistance mutation was present in a low frequency in one population. Detoxifying enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in adults differed among populations, but chlorpyrifos resistance was associated only with a decreased esterase activity as shown by a significant negative correlation between chlorpyrifos mortality and esterase activity.

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Maritza Reyes, Wilson Barros-Parada, Claudio C. Ramírez, and Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras "Organophosphate Resistance and Its Main Mechanism in Populations of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)from Central Chile," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(1), 277-285, (1 February 2015).
Received: 6 March 2014; Accepted: 5 October 2014; Published: 1 February 2015

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