Field and laboratory no-choice oviposition tests were performed to determine whether the ‘Persian’ lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) is a host of Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae). Trapping and fruit sampling were performed to determine adult population densities and the level of infestation in the two lime orchards. Additionally, unharvested and harvested limes were exposed to sexually mature flies and the number of eggs laid and the immature developmental rates were determined. As a control, parthenocarpic ‘Ataulfo’ mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), a suitable host for A. ludens, were exposed to similar experimental procedures. The fecundity and fertility of adults obtained from limes and mangoes were compared. Our results demonstrate that A. ludens, under forced infestation conditions, oviposit on limes and also on control fruit. However, differences were detected in unharvested and harvested fruit, as unharvested limes were not infested. In the case of harvested fruit, the numbers of eggs laid and survival rates of immatures were significantly lower for ‘Persian’ limes compared with mangoes. Egg clutches were larger in limes than in mangoes, and most were deposited in the albedo rather than in the pulp. Moreover, oviposition rates were much higher in limes than in mangoes. Despite the fact that few of the immatures reached adulthood, the females obtained from limes were as fecund and fertile as those obtained from mangoes. Although adult A. ludens flies were captured in the two orchards, fruit sampling showed a complete absence of natural infestation among ‘Persian’ limes. We discuss the importance of our findings for determining the host status for ‘Persian’ limes.
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