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1 February 2015 Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Mortality in Export Bale Compressors and Response to a Hydrogen Phosphide and Carbon Dioxide Gas Mixture
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Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), puparial mortality was evaluated in three modern hay compressors that produce compressed standard and large-size bales for export to Asia-Pacific countries. Pressure on bales ranged from 93.4 to 139.4 kg/cm2, causing 90.0–99.9% mortality of 10,891–23,164 puparia. Puparial response to a cylinderized hydrogen phosphide (1.8–2%) and carbon dioxide (97.8–98%) gas mixture was evaluated as a potential quarantine treatment using 2–4 d-exposures to low, medium, and high doses of 0.73–0.86, 1.05–1.26, and 1.39–1.56 mg/liter, and temperatures of 5.87 ± 1.14, 9.84 ± 0.05, 16.14 ± 0.14, and 20.35 ± 0.11°C. Accumulative concentration multiplied by time products (mg h/liter) at all fumigation temperatures for low, medium, and high fumigant doses were 34.9–37.7, 52.2–54.3, and 67.9–73.1 for 2d; 52.7–60.6, 77.9–89.2, and 102.1–110.7 for 3d; and 69.9–82.0, 99.4–118.2, and 132.3–146.8 for 4 d, respectively. An increase in mortality was significantly related to an increase in fumigation duration at 5, 10, and 15°C, and an increase in fumigant dose at 10 and 15°C. Puparial mortality ranged from 97.2 to 100% at all doses and durations at 20° C with no survivors at the highest dose for 3 d and the mid- and highest dose for 4 d. Bale compression is currently used in the first phase of a multiple quarantine treatment to control potential Hessian fly contaminants in exported hay. The novel fumigant may have application as a single quarantine treatment for noncompressed, standard exported bales.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Victoria Y. Yokoyama, Sue E. Cambron, and Jeannette Muhareb "Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Mortality in Export Bale Compressors and Response to a Hydrogen Phosphide and Carbon Dioxide Gas Mixture," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(1), 100-106, (1 February 2015).
Received: 5 August 2014; Accepted: 27 October 2014; Published: 1 February 2015

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