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1 February 2015 Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Rice Planthoppers to Adult and Immature Stages of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
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Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by <30% in comparison with the control, and were thus ranked as harmless. Although insecticide treatment of the three immature stages of T. chilonis all reduced wasp emergence from host eggs, only thiamethoxam applied at larval stage and buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers.

© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
Ko Ko, Yudi Liu, Maolin Hou, Dirk Babendreier, Feng Zhang, and Kai Song "Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Rice Planthoppers to Adult and Immature Stages of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(1), 69-76, (1 February 2015).
Received: 2 March 2014; Accepted: 3 December 2014; Published: 1 February 2015

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