Planthoppers in the genus Nilaparvata Distant are serious pests of rice and many other crops in tropical and temperate Asia, and northern Australia. In this study, the mitochondrial genomes of four Nilaparvata planthoppers were sequenced, three in Nilaparvata lugens Sta° l and one in Nilaparvata muiri China. Mitochondrial genome of Nilaparvata contain the standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region. The nucleotide composition of Nilaparvata mitochondrial sequence is biased toward adenine and thymine, and the amino acid composition is affected to a similar degree by the bias to AT. We compare the four mitochondrial genomes and find intra- and interspecific variation in gene length, base composition, nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, intergenic spacer length, and gene overlap. The intra- and interspecific variations reveal that nucleotide and amino acid substitutions in mitochondrial protein-coding genes make a contribution to the formation of various insect biotypes in one species. Furthermore, the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions in the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, as well as differences in start codons, the length of intergenic spacers, and gene overlap regions contribute to differences between the two species investigated here. In addition, cox is the most conserved gene family and nad4-nad4l cluster is variable in Nilaparvata mitochondrial genes for the intra- and interspecific variation.
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Vol. 108 • No. 4