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1 October 2015 Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)
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Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (<25% mortality of adults). The toxicity and residual activity of some of these insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae.

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Alfonso Luna-Cruz, Esteban Rodríguez-Leyva, J. Refugio Lomeli-Flores, Laura D. Ortega-Arenas, Néstor Bautista-Martínez, and Samuel Pineda "Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(5), 2289-2295, (1 October 2015).
Received: 13 September 2014; Accepted: 24 June 2015; Published: 1 October 2015

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