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1 December 2015 Behavioral Responses of Cattle to Naturally Occurring Seasonal Populations of Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Under Rangeland Conditions
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The behavioral responses of cattle under the influence of naturally occurring seasonal horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), populations were evaluated under rangeland conditions. This study was replicated four times using 10 cows as the subsampling unit equipped with GPS collars scheduled to receive locational fixes every 5 min for 6 d prior to, and 6 d following horn fly insecticidal control application. Data derived from GPS collars were used to evaluate potential horn fly-induced behavioral modifications expressed during predawn, daytime, and nighttime periods. These data were used to analyze variables, which included distance travelled, daily area explored, vertical and horizontal head movements, and inferred activities such as resting, grazing, and walking. Horn fly populations were estimated using daily visual counts and were reduced significantly on animals following insecticidal application. There was no significant difference between treatment periods in any of the aforementioned analyzed variables. During the night-time hours estimated differences (pretreatment minus posttreatment) for distance travelled, area explored, and vertical head movements were 0.81 ± 0.46 km/d, 0.35 ± 0.21 km2/d, and 7.25 ± 5.30 counts/d, respectively. The implications of these observations are discussed.

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Brandon G. Smythe, Jimmy B. Pitzer, Mark E. Wise, Andres F. Cibils, Dawn Vanleeuwen, and Ronnie L. Byford "Behavioral Responses of Cattle to Naturally Occurring Seasonal Populations of Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Under Rangeland Conditions," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(6), 2831-2836, (1 December 2015).
Received: 14 March 2015; Accepted: 24 July 2015; Published: 1 December 2015

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