Laboratory bioassays were used to develop a diagnostic assay test for identifying greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), populations that are insecticide-resistant. Petri dish assays with chlorpyrifos showed greenbug mortality should be monitored after 2 h of exposure. One-hour exposure did not kill a high percentage of susceptible greenbugs, and a 3-h exposure killed too many resistant greenbugs. Ethanol and methanol were both good solvents for mixing with chlorpyrifos in the petri dish assay. From the laboratory bioassays, four diagnostic concentrations of chlorpyrifos (3, 10, 30, and 100 ppm) were evaluated in the field by Texas A&M University agricultural research and extension entomologists across the Texas High Plains. Results from the diagnostic assay tests were compared with gel-electrophoresis resistance tests to validate resistance detection. The diagnostic assay tests gave the same greenbug resistance identification as the gel-electrophoresis analysis in 21 of 22 field bioassays in 1994 and 35 of 39 field bioassays in 1995. Diagnostic concentrations of 30 and 100 ppm chlorpyrifos killed ≥85 and ≥90%, respectively, of greenbugs identified by gel-electrophoresis as susceptible and < 40% and <55%, respectively, of resistant greenbugs. The diagnostic assay technique is a quick, reliable, and inexpensive method for detecting insecticide resistance in greenbug populations.
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