Effects of novobiocin, nalidixic, and oxolinic acids on the survival and development of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae L. were investigated alone and in various combinations by rearing larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. Effects varied with the levels and kinds of the antibiotics in the tested combinations. Among the tested antibiotics alone, only the lowest level of novobiocin enhanced the postlarval survival. Most of the combinations significantly increased the number of survivors in the postlarval developmental stages. Novobiocin in combination with nalidixic acid (6.0:2.0 mg) in the artificial diet produced a yield of 80.8% pupae and 69.4% adults, respectively. This combination also shortened the developmental time to adult emergence. Similarly, on most of the diets with combinations of the antibiotics, the development of the larvae up to adult stage was noticeably faster than those on the control diets. An ≈50% reduction in the percentages of pupae and adults was recorded by 6.0 mg of novobiocin in combination with 0.75 mg of oxolinic acid compared with the control diet. Although this combination prolonged the complete development of the insect according to other novobiocin and oxolinic acid combinations, developmental time was significantly shorter than that with control diet.
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Vol. 94 • No. 1